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The students of our Academy have various facilities for sports and recreation. Students from other towns are given hostel accommodations».
Then one of the students said that those who were admitted to the Academy took the First-Year Student's Oath. They solemnly swear to master the fundamental medical subjects and to follow the traditions of the oldest institution of higher medical learning.
During the graduation ceremony young doctors, graduates of the Academy, take The Oath of the Russian Doctor. Young doctors solemnly swear that they will use all their knowledge and abilities to improve the people's health, and to prevent and cure diseases.
The lesson was very interesting and we enjoyed it very much.
Active Words and Word Combinations
Institution of higher learning
высшееучебноезаведениеInstitution of higher medical learning высшеемедицинскоеучебноезаведение (оfoundосновыватьdepartmentкафедра, отделениеdivisionотделение(he junior divisionмладшее
отделение (heseniordivisionстаршее отделение
surgeryхирургия surgicalхирургический surgeonхирург internalmedicineвнутренние
болезни, терапия (ср.therapyлечение) therapeuticлечебный physicianтерапевт midwiferyакушерство obstetricsакушерство obstetricакушерский obstetricianакушер
staff memberсотрудникfacultyфакультетMedical Facultyлечебный
факультетFaculty of Preventive Medicine медико-профилактическийфакультетPharmaceutical Faculty фармацевтическийфакультетStomatological Faculty стоматологическийфакультетMilitary Medicine Faculty факультетвоенноймедициныNursing FacultyфакультетвысшегосестринскогообразованияFaculty of Training Medical Researchers and Instructors факультетподготовкинаучно-педагогическихкадров
Faculty of Health Care ManagementфакультетуправленияздравоохранениемFaculty for Advanced Training
course of studyкурсобученияcurriculumучебныйпланtermсеместр
to do a practicumпроходить
практикуdeanдеканdean's officeдеканатfacilitiesвозможности, условияresearch (work)научно-
исследовательская работа tocarryonresearchвести научно-исследовательскую работу, проводить исследования underthesupervisionпод
руководством students9scientificsocietyстуденческое научное общество hostelобщежитие hostelaccommodationместо в
toswearклясться, принимать клятву
to graduate (from the Academy)
окончить (Академию) agraduateвыпускник высшего учебного заведения
Упражнение 5. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы и прочтите
1. What faculties were (there) at the Moscow University in 1758. 2. What departments were there at the Medical Faculty in the 19th century? 3. When were the first clinical hospitals opened? 4. What outstanding doctors worked at the Medical Faculty in the 19th century? 5. When do the students take exams? 6. What oaths do medical students take?
Упражнение 6. Прочтите следующие утверждения и выразите согласие ими несогласие.
Начнитесвоиответысослов:Yes, you are right...; No, I don9 think you are right..*; No, I don't think that is correct... .
1. By the end of the 19th century there were 26 departments and 12 clinics at the Medical Faculty of the Moscow University. 2. N.V. Skli- losofsky, A.A. Bobrov and P.I. Dyakonov were famous surgeons.
B.F. Snegirev, one of the famous physicians, worked at the Medical I acuity of the Moscow University. 4. The dean is head of the department. 5. The Academy has more than 80, departments in various Iheoretical and clinical specialties. jv
Упражнение 7. Поставьте специальные вопросы к следующим предложениям и запишите их. Используйтевопросительныеслова, данныевскобках.
1. In 1758 there were three professors at the Medical Faculty of the Moscow University, (when?) 2. Only 16 students studied medicine in 1765. (how many?) 3. The first clinical hospital of the Moscow University Medical Faculty was opened at the end of the 19th century, (what?) •I. The great Russian writer A.P. Chekhov graduated from the Medical I acuity of the Moscow University, (who?) 5. The graduates of the Moscow Medical Academy work in various parts of our country, (where?)
Упражнение 8. Вас пригласили на встречу со студентами-иностранцами, юлько что поступившими в ММА им. И.М. Сеченова. Ответьте на вопросы первокурсников об истории Академии.
1. When was the Moscow Medical Academy founded? 2. Who was (he founder of the Moscow University? 3. Who was the first professor of medicine at the Moscow University? 4. What famous scientists worked at the Medical faculty at the end of the 19th century? 5. How many faculties were there at the Moscow University? 6. How many faculties are there at the Moscow Medical Academy now? 7. How many students study at the Moscow Medical Academy today?
Упражнение 9. Очередная встреча с иностранцами-первокурсниками посещена факультетам Московской медицинской академии им. И.М. Сеченова. Расскажите о факультете, на котором вы учитесь. Используйте данные вопросы в качестве плана.
1. Whatfacultydoyoustudyat? 2. How many students study at the faculty? 3. What specialists are trained at the faculty? 4. What is the course of study? 5. Who is the dean of your faculty? 6. Students carry on research work in the Students' Scientific Society, don't they? 7. How many students of your faculty take part in the annual students' scientific conferences? 8. A great number of graduates of the Academy work as doctors or pharmacists in various parts of our country, don't they?
Упражнение 10. Руководитель студенческою научного кружка попросил вас рассказать иностранным студентам-медикам историю Академии, Используйте следующие слова и сочетания слов в своем рассказе.
to be founded, to be one of the oldest institutions of higher medical learning, independent institution of higher learning, departments, medical students, to open a clinical hospital, staff members of the faculty, outstanding scientist, junior and senior divisions, to graduate from the Academy
Упражнение 11. Студент из Индии хочет узнать о работе Студенческого Научного Общества. Выступите в роли индийского и российского студентов: опираясь на текст (упр. 4), составьте несколько вопросов о СНО (индийский студент), подготовьте информацию о работе научного общества, чтобы ответить на вопросы (российский студент) Используйте следующие словосочетания в вашей беседе.
Students' Scientific Society; theoretical and clinical departments; to carry on research; to devote one's time to research; important problems of modern medicine; to play an important role in...; training of would- be health care specialists, under the supervision of, to develop one's abilities, annual students' scientific conferences, to be held
Упражнение 12. Прослушайте (прочитайте) диалог и скажите, между кем идет беседа и какие темы обсуждаются.
Dima: Hello, Jane. I am so glad to see you. Jane: Hi, Dima. How nice to meet you again. I haven't seen you for ages. How is life?
Dima: I'm a student of the Moscow Medical Academy now. Jane: Congratulations! When did you enter the Academy? Dima:I entered the Academy last year. Jane: Did you pass any entrance exams?
Dima: Certainly I did. I had to take exams in chemistry and biology and to write a composition.
Jane: What marks did you get?
Dima:Two «excellent» and one «good».
Jane: So, you must be a second year student now.
Dima: Yes, I am in the second year. And what about you?
Jane: I haven't decided yet what college to choose. Tell me more about your Academy. I believe the systems of higher learning are very different in our countries. Is there an evening division at your Academy?
Dima: Yes, there are evening divisions at the pharmaceutical and nursing faculties.
Jane: What subjects do medical students study?
Dima:Oh, there are a lot of subjects in the pre-clinical years. We study anatomy, biology, microbiology, general and biological chemistry, physics, physiology and some other subjects. We also study languages: Latin focussing on basics of medical terminology and one of the three foreign languages English, German, or French trying to learn to understand medical texts.
Jane: What is the course of study at your faculty?
Dima: Six years.
Jane: Well, I guess it takes a lot of time and much effort to become a highly qualified medical professional.
Dima: Yes, it certainly does. But I find all this very interesting.
Упражнение 13.Прослушайте (прочитайте) диалог вторично.
Используя диалог в качестве модели, выступите в роли студента младшего отделения ММА им. И.М. Сеченова и корреспондентов иностранных молодежных изданий, интересующихся вопросами поступления и обучения на младших курсах медицинских вузов России.
Упражнение 14. Вы участвуете в викторине на английском языке «Что я таю об одном из старейших медицинских институтов нашей страны». Ны правильно ответили на все вопросы. Для того чтобы стать победителем, нам нужно выполнить последнее задание — перевести письменно следующие предложения.
1. Московская медицинская академия была основана в 1758 году как факультет Московского университета. 2. Основателем Московского университета был великий русский ученый М.В. Ломоносов. 3. В 19 веке в Московском университете было шесть кафедр. 4. В Московской медицинской академии были открыты два новых факультета: стоматологический и военной медицины, 5. Каждый факультет возглавляет декан. 6. Студенты младшего отделения изучают разные виды химии.
Упражнение 15. Вы участвуете в юбилейной международной конференции «Московская медицинская академия - старейший медицинский вуз России», а) 4 студента вашей группы подготовили доклады по следующим темам:
1. The Medical Faculty of Moscow University. 2. The faculties of the Moscow Medical Academy. 3. The departments of the Moscow Medn cal Academy. 4.The academic research of the students of the Moscow Medical Academy.
б) Прослушайте эти доклады и задайте вопрос каждому выступающему,
MEDICAL EDUCATION IN RUSSIA
Упражнение 1.Прослушайте (прочитайте) и запомните следующие словосочетания. Переведите предложения.
1. WorldHealthOrganization (WHO) Всемирная организация здравоохранения
World Health Organization promotes the development of health education in all the countries of the world.
The regional WHO office for Europe is situated in Copenhagen.
2. to receive nursing training at a specialised secondary school получитьсреднеемедицинскоеобразование (вмедучилище)
My sister received nursing training at a specialised secondary school. SheworksasanurseathospitalNo. 5.
Упражнение 2. Прослушайте и повторите за диктором (преподавателем) следующие слова. Обратите внимание на ударения.
internship [in'ta:nfip], patient ['peijbnt], gynaecology [^aini'koladji], scholarship ['skolajip], epidemiological [ep^diimia'bcfeikal], post-graduate ['poust'graedjuit], qualification [,kwolifi'keiJn], specialization [,spej3lai'zeijn]
Упражнение 3. Определите, от каких глаголов образованы данные существительные, и переведите их.
information, achievement, examination, selection, instruction, training, supervision, introduction
Упражнение 4. Прочтите и переведите текст.
Medical Education in Russia
Last year a delegation from the World Health Organization visited Moscow. The delegates were interested in medical education in Russia. Some of them came to the Moscow Medical Academy and had a talk on this subject with Dr. Ivanov, the Dean of the Medical Faculty.
Dr. Conroy: Dr. Ivanov, my colleagues and I are here by the arrangement with the World Health Organization. We should like to receive some information on the training of doctors in your country and about the curricula in the medical institutions of higher learning, or medical schools as we call them.
Dean:I'll be happy to answer all your questions.
Dr. Conroy: First of all, would you kindly tell us who has the right to enter a medical school in your country?
Dean: Any citizen of our country who has a complete secondary education may apply to medical school.
Dr. Conroy: Applicants have to take examinations, don't they?
Dean: Yes, quite so. All the applicants are required to take entrance competitive examinations in biology, chemistry, and the Russian language. And those who obtained the highest marks in the examinations are admitted. Applicants who have finished school with a gold or silver medal are allowed to take only one examination. If they get an excellent mark, they are admitted to the medical school.
Dr. Brown: Would you tell us, please, how your students are instructed?
Dean: The instruction at higher schools is given through lectures, group instruction and practical classes.
Dr. Scott: Is the attendance at lectures and classes voluntary?
Dean: No, it is compulsory for all students.
Dr. Conroy: How is the students' knowledge checked?
Dean: Our academic year begins on September 1st and is divided into two terms of four months each. At the end of each term the students have to pass a number of examinations.
Dr. Brown: We should like to know something about your medical curriculum, if we may.
Dean: Well, the course of study lasts 6 years and covers basic preclinical and clinical subjects. In the pre-clinical years the curriculum is uniform for the students of the medical, preventive medicine, stomato^ , logical and pediatric faculties. During the first two years students study physics, general, organic, inorganic and bioTogicai chemistry. The students also study human anatomy, physiology, histology, microbiology, Latin, a foreign language, and philosophy. Beginning with the third year (■ special clinical subjects are introduced - all branches of internal medi- j cine, surgery, gynaecology, obstetrics, ophthalmology, infectious dis- eases and. others. At the end of the third year students take a six-week practical course. They perform the duties of nurses. After their fourth year students take another practical course during which they are ex- I posed to direct doctor-patient communication at the department of internal diseases as well as at the surgical department, and the department of obstetrics and gynaecology. Working as doctor's assistants, students master a definite number of medical and diagnostic procedures. Senior students also do a practicum in out-patient clinics. They have to attend lectures, seminars, and clinical conferences as well.
Dr. Conroy: Dr. Ivanov, you've told us about undergraduate clinical training in the Medical Faculty. How does the training course at a medical school end? And what about specialization?
Dean: You see, in our country graduate medical students take a final state examination which includes theoretical questions in internal diseases, surgery and obstetrics and gynaecology, as well as in clinical cases. The graduates also have to demonstrate their practical skills. Those who have passed the examination receive their diploma, which certifies them as doctors. Having received a diploma they may either take a one-year internship course qualifying them as general health care specialists, or a two-year residency course qualifying them as narrow specialists.
Dr. Brown: Dr. Ivanov, would you kindly tell us what facilities your doctors have for specialization?
Dean: Interns and residents work under the direct supervision of experienced specialists in clinics and in major hospitals. Medical graduates can also apply for the post-graduate training. For three years postgraduates do research into one of the important problems of modern medicine, prepare a thesis, defend it, and obtain an academic degree of Candidate of Medical Science.
Dr. Conroy: Dr. Ivanov, thank you very much for the talk. Dean: You are most welcome. If you like, I'll gladly show you through some of our clinical hospitals and departments. Dr. Brown: We'd be much obliged to you.
Active Words and Word Combinations
(o apply to a medical schoolподатьзаявлениеопоступлениивмедицинскийинститутapplicantабитуриентcompetitionконкурсcompetitive examinations
вступительныеэкзаменыto be admitted to the institute
поступить в институт toattendпосещать attendanceпосещение compulsoryобязательный voluntaryсвободный (по желанию)
Упражнение 5. Задайте вопросы, предложения:
toinstructобучать instructionобучение out-patientdepartment (o.p.d.)
esidentординаторesidency (course)ординатураpost-graduateаспирантpost-graduate training (course)
аспирантура thesisдиссертация academicdegreeученая степень
Model: The course of study at medical schools in Russia is six years. What is the course of study at medical schools in Russia? 1. All the applicants take entrance examinations. 2. The attendance at lectures and classes is compulsory for all the students. 3. The instruction at higher schools is given through lectures, group instruction, and practical work. 4. For the first two years students study pre-clinical subjects.
Упражнение 6. Отреагируйте на высказывание собеседника, пользуясь следующей моделью:
Model: I am studing all branches of internal medicine at the Mediacal School. Are you going to be (to become) a physician? 1. I'm a second-year student at the Stomatological Faculty. 2. He is especially interested in surgery. 3. My elder sister studies different kinds of chemistry. 4. My friend is getting on very well at the Faculty of Preventive Medicine. 5. Myfavouritesubjectisobstetricsandgynaecology.
Упражнение 7. Вы беседуете с Раджем Шарма, студентом из Индии, Ответьте на его вопросы.
Raj: Look, when I told my parents that I'd like to become a doctor they advised me to go to Russia. Are foreign students admitted to tho Moscow Medical Academy? You:
Raj: What subjects shall we study in the first two years? You:
Raj: What about the textbooks? Where shall I take them? How much money will I have to pay for the books taken from the library? You:
Raj: Shall we take examinations every year? You:
Raj: When shall we begin specialization in medicine, surgery or obstetrics and gynaecology? You:
Упражнение 8. Вы учитесь на 6 курсе лечебного факультета. Расскажите вашим иностранным друзьям о занятиях на выпускном курсе. Исполь- зуйтеследующиесловосочетанияввашейбеседе:
the final year of medical training, to do a practicum at the hospital, to specialise in surgery, to assist at operations, to treat patients, to attend, clinical conferences, lectures, to take final state examinations
Упражнение 9. Прочтите следующие утверждения и выразите согласие. Начнитесвоивысказыванияфразами:
I agree with you that.., I think you are right in saying that...
1.There are many medical schools all over Russia. 2. After the third year medical students perform the duties of nurses. 3.Higher medical education includes six years of general training, one year of specialised training in internship or two years of specialised training in residency.
Упражнение 10. Ознакомьтесь с расписанием занятий студентов 2 курса лечебного факультета Московской медицинской академии. Скажите, как организован учебный процесс, сколько семестров занимаются студенты- медики? Какиепредметыизучаютстуденты 2курса?
Year 2. Third Term (17 weeks). September 1 — December 31.
Year 2. FourthTerm (17 weeks). February 7 — May 31.
Упражнение 11. а) Прочтите методические указания к курсу гистологии для студентов 2 курса лечебного факультета Московской медицинской академии.
Г>) Задайте вопрос к каждому предложению. Отвечая на вопросы, расскажите, как организован этот курс в вашем институте.
The course of histology covers the light and electron microscopic structure of cells, tissues, and organs in relation to their function. It is designed 1) to acquaint students with cell and tissue structure in correlation to their study of biochemistry and physiology and 2) to provide (hem with a working knowledge of normal light microscope morphology as background for their later study of pathology. The lectures will cover cells and their specialisations in specific tissues such as muscle, nerve, epithelium, lymphoid and connective tissue. Descriptions of the structure of various organs will be correlated with their physiological functions. The laboratory sessions will give students an opportunity to study the light microscopic structure of normal cells, tissues, and organs and to review in small group sessions the concepts covered in the lectures. Students' knowledge will be evaluated by an oral examination.
Упражнение12.Прочитайте и переведите диалоги. Выучите диалоги наизусть и разыграйте
Antony:Where do you study, Kate?
Kate: I study at the Medical Institute.
Antony: Will you explain to me what you mean? The word «institute** sounds very unusual to the English ear. Is it a college or a kind of| University?
Kate: Well, it's a higher education establishment, which trains stu* i dents to be doctors. You would call it a Medical school.
Antony: By the way, are graduates of Russian medical schools given I degree?
Kate: No, they are not. The Russian system of academic degrees ill different. Russian graduates are given diplomas which certify them ai health care professionals.
Jane: What subjects do students study at your Medical School? j Dmitry: You know, it depends on the faculty and the year they are in.* Jane: Well, let's say the second year of the Medical Faculty. Dmitry: Second-year students study anatomy, physiology, histology,4 microbiology, biochemistry and philosophy. I
Jane: And what about Latin and foreign languages? Dmitry: As for Latin, we study it in the first year. And we study one foreign language — English, French, or German for two years.
Упражнение 13. Студенты вашей группы принимают участие во встрече американских и канадских студентов-медиков. Расскажите гостям о системе высшего медицинского образования в нашей стране, используя следующий план.
1. The rules of admission to a medical institution of higher learning. 2. The instruction of medical students in Russia. 3. Pre-clinical subjects in~ Medical schools in our country. 4. Clinical subjects. 5. The practicum at Medical schools. 6. Facilities for doing research. 7. The work of young doctors after graduation. 8. Facilities for further training after graduation from Medical school.
HEALTH CARE IN RUSSIA
Упражнение 1.Прослушайте (прочитайте) и запомните следующие словосочетания. Переведите предложения.
1. the Medical Workers' Union профсоюзмедработниковDoctors, nurses, and all health workers of the hospital are members
of the Medical Workers' Union.
2. patient's visit to the doctor (syn. doctor's appointment) приемврача, визиткврачу.
District doctors give consultations to ambulant patients during the patients' visits to the polyclinic. 3. maternity consultation centre женскаяконсультацияPregnant women are kept under observation by the doctor of the maternity consultation centre. /)
Упражнение 2. Прослушайте и повторите за диктором (преподавателем) следующие слова. / г ,0 .у. ■'V'"'
curative ['kjuorativ], charge [tfarcfc], medicine ['medsn], to acquaint la'kweint], population [,popju'leiJn], prophylaxis [,profi'laeksis], physiotherapy ['fizio(u)'0er9pi], ambulance ['aembjulons], arrangement la'reincfcmant], psychiatric [,saiki'aetrik], foetus [Titos], maternity Ima'temiti], research [ri'sa:tf], ischemia [is'kfcmis]
Упражнение 3. Скажите, как с помощью суффикса можно определить, какой частью речи является слово и переведите производные слова следующих лексических гнезд.
to prevent - prevention, preventive; to practise - practice, practical, practitioner; to protect — protection, protective; to detect — detection, detective; to diagnose — diagnosis, diagnostic
Упражнение 4. Назовите признаки, по которым можно определить, что данное слово является производным.
medical, institution, healthy, preventive, curative, examination, infectious, prevention, treatment, arrangement
Упражнение 5. Прочтите и переведите текст.
Health Care in Russia
A group of British doctors came to Russia last year in the summer as guests of the Russian Medical Workers' Union. They visited polyclinics and hospitals as well as other medical institutions in Moscow, Tula, St. Petersburg and Omsk. Upon their return the British doctors had a talk with their Russian colleagues.
Dr. Sharland: During our stay in Russia we were kindly acquainted with the health care system in your country. We've seen that health care in Russia, both preventive and curative, is available to the whole population.
Dr. Sharova: Dear colleagues, as to the character of health care in our country, the most distinctive feature of it is the attention paid to prophylaxis. One of the main tasks in the fight against various diseases the early detection of the first signs of disease.
Dr. McDonald: Would you tell us how this is done? .
Dr. Sharova: We pay much attention to the health education of the' population. We believe that is one of the main available methods qf j preventing the spread of diseases. For this purpose the press, cinema radio, and television are very helpful.
Dr. Kelly: We were surprised to find out that general practitioners dd ]
not exist in your country. We were told that in your country the primary medical care is provided by polyclinics. We visited some polyclinics^ Your polyclinics are large medical centres employing many doctors and nurses. Polyclinics have their own laboratories and X-ray, physiotherapy, surgical and dental departments. Some have even radiotherapy units.
Dr. Kruglov: I would like to add that we have polyclinics for the adult population of a given area and polyclinics for children. Ambulant patients are seen at the polyclinic by district doctors. Patients who are seriously ill are visited by their district doctor at home.
Dr. Sharland: We've seen that district doctors in your country, like their British colleagues, are on call part of their working day. And how many hours a day does your district doctor work?
Dr. Nikitina: The doctor works 6 hours a day. For the district doctor this is made up of 3 hours seeing patients at the polyclinic and 3 hours in visiting patients in their homes.
Dr. McDonald:And what about your emergency ambulance service?
Dr. Sharova:. The emergency ambulance service operates day апсГnight and is free of charge. In case of an emergency condition one has to dial 03 for a doctor to come. The ambulances are equipped with diagnostic, respiratory, and anaesthetic apparatus, as well as blood-trans- fusion and other devices, which enable the doctor to give emergency surgical and medical treatment.
Dr. Kelly:We saw several specialised hospitals in St. Petersburg for the treatment of particular diseases — infectious and psychiatric diseases, cancer, and eye (ophthalmological) diseases and others. In Moscow we visited the Mother-and-Child Health Care Centre. This Centre deals with not only routine problems of obstetrics and gynaecology but also with research in the normal physiology of a female organism starting from an early stage of development.
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