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C. Read and translate the text. Higher education in the USA lures students from all parts of the world
Higher education in the USA lures students from all parts of the world. It takes a lot of preparation to get into any one of the American universities. Most of these schools or colleges have their own standards for testing the student's skills and knowledge.
A student aspiring to study in the USA can gain admission as an undergraduate, graduate or a post graduate student.
Bachelor’s program. Generally, it takes four years of undergraduate study to earn a Bachelors degree. The first year is called freshman year; second – sophomore; third – junior; and the fourth – senior. Students in senior year are also called as "Upperclassmen".
There are various subjects you can choose to study in an undergraduate college. The first two years mostly cover general subjects. A junior year student must choose a "major" field of study. They must take a certain number of courses in their field. In some schools, students also choose a "minor" field. There is usually time for students to choose several other "elective" (extra) courses in other subjects. Each student is assigned a "faculty advisor", who teaches their major subjects, and assists them to select a particular program of study.
Graduate Study. It is what is sometimes called postgraduate education. All master degrees are graduate degrees. Masters Degree is usually required in fields such as Engineering, Library science, Business Administration or Social work. Mostly master’s degree is a 2-year program, but some subjects like journalism, may need just one year.
A Doctorate degree (Ph.D) usually takes five to seven years to complete. Unlike undergraduates, graduate students begin specialized study from the first day.
Vocational Training Programs. These are many specific courses/ training programs for professional subjects. Some of them include Printing technology, Orthoptics, fashion and textile technology. If you want to go for graduate studies in the USA, you must know that there are different types of education centers in the USA.
State College or University. These schools are supported and run by the State Government. Each U.S. state operates at least one state university, and several state colleges.
Private College or Universities. These schools are privately owned/operated institutes. Tuition fee is usually higher than the state government schools. Normally these colleges and universities are smaller in size.
Community Colleges. Community colleges are local i.e. a city or county colleges. They also conduct evening classes for students who work during the day. Normally, community colleges welcome international students. But few countries do not recognize degrees from such community colleges.
Professional Schools. These are professional schools to train students in professional fields such as Art, Music, Engineering, Business, etc. They can be a part of a university or may be a separate school. Some offer graduate programs as well.
Institute of Technology. These technical schools conduct at least four years of study in the science and technology fields. Some of them offer graduate programs too.
Schools run by Church. Many U.S. colleges and universities were founded by religious groups and are run by local religious organizations. Nearly all these schools welcome students of all religions and belief, but may give preference to members of their own religious group.
Academic year. The school calendar usually begins in August or September and continues through May or June. Most new and international students join the colleges during the Fall session, so as to adjust to the weather.
The academic year at many schools is composed of two terms known as semesters. Some schools use a three term calendar known as the "trimester" system. Still others divide the year into four terms known as the "quarter" system, including a summer session which is optional.
Academic Advising. Academic advisers offer information, guidance, and advice throughout the academic program. They may provide this information in a group setting with other students, or in private sessions. Most graduate students are assigned, or can choose a faculty member as their academic adviser.
Credits. Each course is considered to be worth a number of "credits" or "credit hours". This number is roughly the same as the number of hours a student spends in a class for that course each week. A course is typically worth three to five credits. A full program at most schools is twelve or fifteen credit hours (four or five courses per term). International students are expected to enroll in a full program during each term.
Grade. The word "grade" conveys two meanings, viz. A year of education e.g. the first year of school is "first grade", or grade also means marks/rank, e.g. "grade A, B, C, D, or F".
Course. "Course" is usually called a "subject", where as "course of study" is a full program consisting of several courses.
Transfers. After attending classes for a semester or two the student can enroll in a new university, i.e. take a transfer to a different university. Usually most credits earned at the first school can be used to complete a degree at the new university. Also, if you have finished a certain undergraduate degree outside U.S.A, and are planning to continue your studies here, then you can apply as a transfer student.
Marks. Students are evaluated on the basis of "Marks". Professors give each student marks/grades for each course. The marks are based upon all the following or combination of the following, depending on the school:
o classroom participation: discussion, questions, conversation. Students are expected to participate in class discussions, especially in seminar classes. This is often a very important factor in determining a student's grade;
o a midterm examination: usually given during class time;
o one or more research or term papers, or laboratory reports;
o short exams or "quizzes" intended to inspire students to keep up with their assignments and attendance;
o final examination: these are the final examination after completion of the course.
Äàòà äîáàâëåíèÿ: 2014-11-13; ïðîñìîòðîâ: 18; Íàðóøåíèå àâòîðñêèõ ïðàâ