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INTERNET




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The best way to think of the Internet, or Net as it is often called, is a vast global network of networks connecting computers across the world. At present, more than 33 million people use Internet and over three million computers worldwide are linked in. They use the Net for transferring data, playing games, socializing with other computer users, and sending e-mail.

The Net was dreamt up in the late 1960s by the US Defense Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency which decided that it needed a means by which messages could be sent and received even if phone lines were inoperative. In 1969, there was a network of just four computers. By 1972 the number had risen to 40. About this time the idea of electronic mailbox was born. By 1984 the Internet began to develop into the form we know it today.

The Internet can be divided into five broad areas.

Electronic mail, which is much faster than traditional mail. Any­thing that can be digitized (converted into digital form) – pictures, sound, video – can be sent, retrieved, and printed at the other end.

Information sites. This is perhaps the fastest growing area of the Internet as more and more people put their own information pages on line. Computers process vast amounts of information very fast, by specifying a key word or phrase. The computer can then search around the Net until it finds some matches. These information sites are usu­ally stored on big computers that exist all over the world. The beauty of the Net is that you can access all of them from your home, using your own PC.

The World Wide Web, usually referred to as WWW or 3W, is a vast network of information databases that feature text, sound, and even video clips. On the WWW you can go on a tour of a museum or exhibition, see the latest images from outer space, go shopping, and get travel information on hotels and holidays.

Usenet is a collection of newsgroups covering any topic. Each newsgroup consists of messages and information posted by other us­ers. There are more than 10,000 newsgroups and they are popular with universities and businesses.

Telnet programs allow you to use your personal computer to ac­cess a powerful mainframe computer.



2. Make the following sentences complete.

1. More than 33 million people use the Net for.................

2. It was in the late 1960s when........................................

3. By 1984.........................................................................

4. ………………………………........... five broad areas.

5. Anything that can be digitized, can...............................

6. One thing that computers do very well is......................

7. On WWW you can........................................................

8. More than 10,000...........................................................

3. Read and discuss the text. Try to retell it.

Topical words

to retrieve – отримувати; знайти

password – пароль

use rid – ідентифікація користувача; ім’я або псевдонім

personal handle – приватне користування, особистий код

domain – домен (місцезнаходження або сфера діяльності адресанта)

server – сервер, накопичувач

login – логін (комп’ютерне ім’я)

Inbox Входящие
Sent Items Отправленные
Outbox Исходящие
Deleted Items Удалённые
Empty Deleted Items Folder Очистить папку «Удалённые»
Tools/Check for New Mail Сервис/Доставить почту
Insert (Attach) File Прикрепить файл
View/Current View Messages with AutoPreview Вид/Текущее представление Сообщение с автопросмотром
Mark as Read Отметить как прочитанное
Reply Ответить
Reply All Ответить всем
IP address цифрова адреса комп’ютера (напр., 104.55.66.78 і т.п.)
URL текстова адреса комп’ютера в Інтернеті, зручна для запам’ятовування (напр., www.business.ru і т.п.)

E-mail



The electronic mail (e-mail) was started in the late 60s by the U.S. military that were searching for a way of communication in the event of a large-scale nuclear war. They needed a system that would be decentralized, reliable, and fast in case the central institutions were destroyed. They came up with e-mail.

In the early 70s, e-mail was limited to the U.S. military, defense contractors, and universities doing defense research. By the 70s it had begun to spread more broadly within university communities. By the 80s, academics in a number of fields were using e-mail for professional collaboration. The 90s saw an explosion of the use of e-mail and other computing networking. It is estimated that more than 25 million people throughout the world were using it in the mid-90s.

E-mail is a way of sending a message from one computer to one or more other computers around the world. A subscriber to e-mail needs a terminal, such as a PC, a telephone line, and a modem, which is a device of converting signals into text. E-mail users must also have access to a mailbox, which they can call from anywhere in the world to retrieve messages. They receive a mailbox number and a password for confidentiality.



E-mail is fast, cheap, and relatively reliable. It permits to send large amounts of information to different addressees and allows people to retrieve messages at any time.

A typical e-mail address is: direct@askbooks.kiev.ua (the e-mail address of the A.S.K. Publishers House). The part to the left of the @ sign, called use rid, has been chosen as a personal handle. The part to the right is called the domain and represents the particular computer that receives and delivers the message.

E-mail message usually comes into two parts: the heading and the body. The heading includes: the date, the writer's name, the addressee's name, which is to receive a copy (c.c.), if any, and the subject. The body of the message bears an ordinary content of a letter but a bit shorter.

The golden rule for writing e-mail messages is KISS (keep it short and simple). Use short phrases instead of long, active voice instead of passive; avoid foreign words, metaphors, and scientific terms.

There's no bold in e-mail, so use capitals or asterisks. Among the abbreviations used in e-mail there are: BTW – by the way; IMHO – in my humble opinion; CONT – container; SHPT – shipment; RQST – request; BUZ – business; MESS – message.

4. Rewrite the letter; substitute the phrases in bold type with more suitable ones for e-mail correspondence. Don’t hesitate to omit unnecessary information.

Dear Mr. Adams, I have been informed today by your secretary that your firm is now ready to take our proposition for take-over. I am glad to hear that nevertheless the negotiations were too long and time-consuming we have come to a positive decision. You will be informed by my secretary about our “rendez-vous” on my arrival from Brazil next week. I hope we will be able to discuss the matter over. I am looking forward to meeting you soon. Sincerely yours, Nick O’Brien

5. Complete the sentences with the enlisted words.

a) INBOX

b) OUTBOX

c) SENT ITEMS

d) NEW MSG/NEW/NEW MAIL/COMPOSE

e) REPLY

f) FORWARD

g) ADDRESS BOOK

h) SEND/RECV/SEND&RECEIVE

i) capital/small/at/dot

j) DRAFTS

1) My address is HollyWoods@hotmail.com, that’s ______ H ______ o-l-l-y ______W ______ o-o-d-s ______ hotmail ______ com.

2) I need my ______ to add/remove/amend e-mail addresses.

3) My ______ is where my incoming messages are stored.

4) If I ______ a message it goes on to another person.

5) With “______” I can write a new letter.

6) If I press ______ I connect with Internet.

7) I look at ______ to see what messages I have sent.

8) Before being sent across Internet, my messages are stored in the ______ .

9) I need to send an answer to that message, I’ll use ______ .

10) I’ll have to finish that e-mail later, I’ll store it in ______ .

6. A “smiley” is a symbol in the Internet to express your emotions. What is the meaning of the following symbols?


1. :-)

2. :-( or :-<

3. :-#

4. .-)

5. :-=

6. :-o

7. :-t

8. :-/

9. l-l

10. :-&


The user:


a) will not say anything

b) is cross

c) has a moustache

d) is undecided

e) is tongue-tied

f) is winking at you

g) is surprised/ shocked

h) is sad

i) is happy

j) is asleep


7. There are a lot of words/phrases for the Internet. Match the following terms and phrases with their explanations.

1. attachment a) where you incoming messages are stored.
2. bandwidth b) pass along an e-mail to another address.
3. bcc c) the speaker is considered incompetent or ignorant.
4. bounce message d) a quotation added to a signature.
5. forward e) error message returned by an e-mail system.
6. mailbox f) an emotional and often angry or rude message.
7. sig quote g) blind courtesy copy.
8. spam h) a measure of how much information can be sent.
9. a flam i) unsolicited e-mail messages (usually unwanted).
10. burble j) a file linked to an e-mail message.

8. Choose the correct definition.


1. E-business a) economic business

b) electronic business

2. T-commerce a) total commerce

b) television commerce

3. C2B a) customer to business

b) client to boss

4. B2B a) buyer to boss

b) business to business

5. IMO a) international monetary

organization

b) in my opinion

6. IMHO a) in my humble opinion

b) international monetary help organization

7. OTL a) over the limit

b) out to lunch

8. HSIK a) how should I know

b) have something in kit

9. SPAM a) unwanted mail

b) compacted meat

10. LOL a) look over lengthily

b) laugh out loud

11. BBL a) bring back later

b) be back later

12. TTYL a) talk to you later

b) the time you left

13. NOYB a) not only your business

b) none of your business

14. FWIW a) for what it’s worth

b) full with internet words

15. IRC a) internet relay chat

b) internal relay comment


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