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B – GROUP EXERCISES
Match a line in A with a line in B.
1. Write out the prepositions and put them into the correct columns.
2. A great number of words have more than one meaning. Look through and remember them (Use your dictionary to translate them, if you need).
a) the process of becoming bigger, better, more important etc, or the result of this process;
b) a new event that changes a situation the process of building new houses, factories etc;
c) a group of new houses or other buildings.
a) the environment the land, water, and air that people, animals, and plants live in;
b) the conditions in which you live and work, that affect your life.
a) something that happens or exists because of something else:
* as a result (of) (= because of something) She feels much better as a result of the treatment;
* with the result (that): We arrived a few minutes late, with the result that we missed our train;
* be the result of: His death was the result of years of drug abuse;
b) the final number of points, votes etc at the end of a game, competition, election etc;
c) the information found in a scientific study or test;
d) especially BrE a number or letter which shows how successful someone has been in a test or examination; SCORE AmE;
* if you get a result, you succeed in doing something.
a) to use all of something:
* Eventually, the world's oil supply will be exhausted.
b) to make someone very tired:
* The trip totally exhausted us.
a) also exhaust pipe a pipe on a car that waste gas comes out of;
b) the waste gas that is produced when an engine is working:
* Car exhaust is the main reason for pollution in the city.
a) something that doctors, nurses etc do to try to cure an illness or injury, for example giving someone drugs or an operation:
* A new treatment for cancer;
b) a way of behaving towards someone or of dealing with them:
* Complaints about the treatment of political prisoners.
a) when something is used in a way that is not useful or sensible, or when you use more of something than is necessary:
* be a waste of time/money/effort: My father thought college would be a complete waste of time.
b) materials that are left after you have used something, which you want to get rid of because you no longer need them:
* radio-active waste from nuclear power stations
* recycling household waste
c) go to waste if something goes to waste, it is not used and is wasted:
* A lot of the food ended up going to waste.
C – GROUP EXERCISES
1. Put prepositions into the gaps.
1. Pollution is a damage caused ___ the environment ___ harmful chemicals and waste.
2. Exhaust ___ automobiles causes a large percentage ___ all air pollution.
3. Environmental pollution is one ___ the most serious problems facing humanity today.
4. People also pollute their surroundings ___ various other ways.
5. But pollution can be gradually reduced ___ several ways.
6. Large numbers ___ people are now working to reduce environmental pollution.
7. Pollution ___ soil reduces the amount ___ land that is available ___ growing food.
2. Put the verbs in brackets into correct form.
All parts of environment (to relate) closely to one another. The study of the relationships among living things, and between living things and other parts of the environment, (to call) the ecology. Because of clause relationships, a kind of pollution that chiefly (to harm) one pat of the environment also (may, to affect) others. For example, air pollution (to harm) the air. But rain (to wash) out of the air and (to deposit) them on the land and in bodies of waters.
3. Change the following sentences active to passive, passive to active.
1. Through the years, automobiles have been made more and more powerful.
2. New cars produce much more polluting exhaust than older ones did.
3. Some solid wastes can be destroyed by burning them.
4. Most treatment plants prevent dangerous organic wastes from upsetting the natural cycles in water.
5. Mechanisms called catalytic converters now remove some of the polluting materials, produced by automobile.
4. Give short answers to the following questions.
1. Are many environmental pollution problems a result of the rapid advances in technology that have been made since about the end of World War II (1945)?
2. Do the treatment plants use bacteria and oxygen to break down the organic wastes and turn them into inorganic nutrients?
3. Were most of the advances made with consideration of the effects they would have on the environment?
4. Have new inventions and processes been continuously developed to improve our way of life?
5. Are small amounts of electricity required in order to produce plastics?
5. Put all types of questions to the following sentences.
1. The automobile engine is an example of a very useful technological development that harms the environment.
2. Through the years, automobiles have been made more and more powerful.
3. Plastics also indirectly cause pollution when they are produced.
6. Find all verbs in the text and put them into correct columns.
7. Here are the answers to some questions. Write the questions.
The automobile engine.
We must do something to eliminate pollution from automobiles.
Economic and social causes.
Dangerous organic wastes.
8. Give definitions to the following terms.
Invention, exhaust, sewage treatment plant, organic wastes, environmental pollution.
D – GROUP EXERCISES
1. The following sentences are grammatically incorrect. Make them correct.
People has always polluted their surroundings. But pollution were not a major problem. Most people lives in uncrowded rural areas, and the pollutants, they produces was widely scattered. People has no pollution-causing machines or motor vehicles. The development of crowded industrial cities in the 1700’s and 1800’s make pollution as major problem.
2. Put the words from the box into each gap.
1. … in agriculture, industry, and transportation have greatly improved our way of life.
2. The sewage treatment plant is an example of a technological development that was designed to protect ..., but which can cause pollution nevertheless.
3. Scientists and engineers are working to develop … that will also remove inorganic nutrients from sewage.
4. The treatment plants use bacteria and oxygen to break down the … and turn them into inorganic nutrients.
5. The gradual elimination of the … from gasoline has helped make automobiles less polluting.
3. Divide the text into 5 parts and put a question to every part.
4. Find out information about:
* the technological development in transportation that harms the environment.
* the mechanisms which help make automobiles less polluting.
* the development for protecting the environment, but which can cause pollution nevertheless.
* a troublesome solid waste.
* a major source of air pollution.
5. Questions for discussion.
1. What developments do we call technological advances?
2. Are environmental pollution problems a result of the rapid advances in technology?
3. How does the automobile engine harm the environment?
4. What do high compression engines require to prevent "knocking" noises?
5. What do the treatment plants use to break down the organic wastes?
6. Are plastics a troublesome solid waste? Why?
7. What is a major source of air pollution?
6. Speak on: “Causes of Pollution”
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