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VOCABULARY. 2. neighbouring ['neɪbərɪŋ] adj




 

1. train v. наводить

2. neighbouring ['neɪbərɪŋ] adj. соседний, близлежащий

3. wonder [¢wʌndə] v. задавать себе вопрос

4. oxygen [¢ɔksɪʤən] n. кислород

5. resemble [rɪ¢zembl] v. напоминать

6. bring into existence создавать

7. above all else кроме всего остального

8. remarkable adj. замечательный, удивительный

выдающийся,

необыкновенный

9. property n. свойство

10. no wonder не удивительно

11. encounter [ɪn¢kauntə] v. встречаться, наталкиваться

12. common thing обычная вещь

13. solidify v. затвердевать, замерзать

14. solidified water замерзшая вода

15. vapour [¢veɪpə] n.водяной пар

16. tiny drops крошечные капельки

17. shroud v. закутывать, укрывать

18. constitute v. составлять

19. as much as seventy one в размере 71 процента

per cent

20. extraordinary adj. необычайный, замечательный,

выдающийся

21. no other никакой другой

22. abundant adj. обильный, изобильный,

распространенный

23. be abundant v. иметься в изобилии

24. occur v. 25. solid adj. 26. liquid adj. 27. gaseous adj. 28. condition v.   29. but for 30. cool v. 31. possess v. 32. high heat capacity 33. absorb v. 34. absorb heat 35. reservoir n. 36. as well as 37. accumulator n. 38. give off v. 39. outer space n. 40. penetrate v. 41. layer n. 42. cotton wool n. 43. desert n. 44. scarce adj. 45. fiercely adv. 46. in the daytime 47. fluctuations n. 48. if it were not for 49. nonetheless 50. in the long run   51. it is common knowledge 52. contract v. 53. expand v. 54. sink (sank, sunk) v. 55. gradually adv. 56. turn into v. 57. mantle n. 58. latent heat 59. melt v. 60. evaporate v. 61. due to 62. a large amount of 63. maintain v. 64. ambient adj. 65. unique adj.   66. originate v. 67. dissolve v. 68. ever since 69. cell n. 70. the least known 71. ability n. 72. surface n. 73. result from v. 74. mutual attraction 75. uppermost adj. 76. tension n. 77. support v. 78. float v.   случаться, происходить твердый жидкий газообразный обусловливать, определять, регулировать если бы не охлаждаться обладать, владеть высокая теплоемкость впитывать, поглощать поглощать тепло водоем так же как накопитель отдавать космос проникать, проходить слой вата пустыня редкий сильно в дневное время колебания если бы не ... тем не менее, все же в конце концов, в конечном счете, в общем общеизвестно сжиматься, сокращаться расширяться тонуть постепенно, последовательно превращаться покров, мантия удельная теплота таять испаряться, превращаться в пар вследствие, из-за большое количество поддерживать, сохранять окружающий единственный в своем роде, уникальный возникать растворять с тех пор клетка наименее известный способность поверхность являться результатом чего-либо взаимное притяжение самый верхний, высший напряжение поддерживать, удерживать плавать, держаться на поверхности  

Exercise 1. Give the three forms of the irregular verbs from the text.

 

Bring, learn, freeze, be, sink, leave.

 

Exercise 2. Find sentences with the following adjectives and adverbs in the text. Read and translate the sentences.

 

huge primitive
deep remarkable
gradually extremely
gaseous mutual
extraordinary seemingly
fiercely common
completely scarce  

Exercise 3. Give degrees of comparison of the following adjectives.

 

Least, heavy, remarkable, tiny, wonderful, high, warm, scarce, great, little.

 

Exercise 4.Match the words with the opposite meaning in column A and column B.

 

A В
strong impossible
tiny liquid
abundant to float
to cool to expand
solid overnight
to absorb scarce
inthe day time weak
to contract large
much to emit
unprotected little
sink protected
possible    

Exercise 5.Give verbs of the following words:

 

evaporation, melting, existence, accumulator, surrounding, fluctuation, containing, resulting.

 

Exercise 6.Find in the text the English equivalents for the following Russian words and phrases:

также как, если бы не, не удивительно, создавать, никакой другой, в дневное время, общеизвестно, постепенно, превращаться, проникать, поглощать, жидкий, космос, тем не менее, если бы не ..., колебания, свойство, напоминать, происходить, редкий, наименее известный, возникать, клетка, уникальный.

 

Exercise 7.Find in the text the following expressions and read the sentences aloud. Translate them into Russian.

 

In the daytime, to bring into existence, if it were not for …, but for …, in the long run, to turn into.

 

Exercise 8.Put the missing prepositions or postpositions if necessary.

 

1. It is water that brought out planet ... existence.

2. Three quarters of the Earth's surface is covered ... water.

3. But ... water our planet would have cooled long ago.

4. If it were not ... water Earth would freeze ... the long run.

5. It is common knowledge that almost all substances contract … cooling.

6. It is only due ... this extraordinary characteristic that life is possible ... a hot climate.

 

Exercise 9.Fill the gaps in these sentences with the suitable words given below.

Constitute, maintain, substance, condition, originate, abundant, absorb, present

1. Water is the most wonderful ... on the Earth.

2. Common water ... as much as seventy-one per cent of the human body.

3. No other substance is more ... on the Earth.

4. Water has ... the Earth's climate.

5. Animals and men can ... their body temperature several degrees lower than that of the ambient atmosphere.

6. .. water vapour is always present in the air.

7. When warmed water ... much heat.

8. Life ... in primitive seas.

 

Exercise 10.Agree or disagree with the following statements. Give your reasons.

 

1. Water is the least known substance of the Earth.

2. The more we learn about it the more we marvel at it

3. Water is a rare thing on our planet.

4. Water constitutes fifty per cent of the human body.

5. It is common knowledge that water expands on cooling.

6. But for water our planet would have cooled long ago.

7. Life originates in primitive seas.

 

Exercise 11.Ask and answer the following questions.

 

Model: Teacher: Ask another student what contribution

Einstein made to science.

Student 1: What contribution did Einstein make to

science?

Student 2; His main contribution was relativity theory.

Ask another student:

1. towhich substance our planet owes its existence.

2. If the more we learn about water the more we marvel at it.

3. If we encounter water everywhere how much of the Earth's surface is covered by water.

4. If water is very common on our planet.

5. Which substance is more abundant of the Earth than water.

6. In which states water occurs on the Earth.

7. If water has conditioned the Earth's climate.

8. If water possesses highor low heat capacity.

9. How this fact influences the weather.

10. If water expands on cooling.

11. If the Earth would freeze if it were not for this remarkable property.

12. How animals and people can maintain their body temperature lower than that of the ambient atmosphere.

13. What is the least known among the remarkable properties of water.

 

Exercise 12.Translate the second sentence in the text paying attention to the translation the conditional sentence and translate the following sentences into Russian.

 

1. People might live longer should human cells be better understood.

2. Ultraviolet light, should it reach the Earth unshielded, would kill most living organisms.

3. It is highly probable that the project would be finished in the near future soon should more information be available.

4. Should Mendel select different subjects for his investigation, he would never have hit upon secrets of inheritance.

 

Exercise 13.Work with the text and find all the examples of the Subjunctive Mood. Read the sentences aloud and translate them into Russian.

 

Exercise 14.Make an outline of the text.

 

Exercise 15. Write a short summary of the text.

 

HURRICANES

 

Hurricanes are violent storms that cause millions of dollars in property damage and take many lives. They can be extremely dangerous, and too often people underestimate their fury.

Hurricanes normally originate as a small area of thunderstorms over the Atlantic Ocean west of the Cape Verde Islands during August or September. For several days, the area of the storm increases and the air pressure falls slowly. A center of low pressure forms, and winds begin to whirl around it. It is blown westward, increasing in size and strength.

Hurricane hunters then fly out to the storm in order to determine its size and intensity and to track its direction. They drop radiosondes, or instruments for recording temperature, air pressure, and humidity, into the storm. They also look at the size of waves on the ocean, the clouds, and the eye of the storm. The eye is a region of relative calm and clear skies in the center of the hurricane. People often lose their lives by leaving shelter when the eye has arrived, only to be caught in tremendous winds again when the eye has passed.

Once the forecasters have determined that it is likely the hurricane will reach shore, they issue a hurricane watch for a large, general area that may be in the path of the storm.

Later, when the probable point of landfall is clearer, they will issue a hurricane warning for a somewhat more limited area. People in these areas are wise to stock up on nonperishable foods, flashlight and radio batteries, candles, and other items they may need if electricity and water are not available after the storm. They should also try to hurricane-proof their houses by bringing in light-weight furniture and other items from outside and covering windows. People living in low-lying areas are wise to evacuate their houses because of the storm surge, which is a large rush of water that may come ashore with the storm.

Hurricanes generally lose power slowly while traveling over land, but many move out to sea, gather up force again, and return to land. As they move toward the north, they generally lose their identity as hurricanes.

 


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