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Different ways of expressing future time.




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  1. Compare the grammar forms of Future and Future-in-the-Past
  2. Complete the sentences by putting the verb in brackets into Future Simple Passive.
  3. Discuss the difference between past (20 years period) and today headlines. Imagine what headlines will appear in the Media in future (in 20 years).
  4. Ex.6. Make these sentences negative and interrogative using Future Perfect Simple.
  5. Ex.6. Make up questions (Present Continuous for Now and Future).
  6. Future Continuous
  7. Future Indefinite (Simple)
  8. Future Perfect
  9. Future Perfect

2.1.2.0. events posterior to another situation Future tense forms are generally found here.

2.1.2.1. events posterior to the present situation

a) a chain of successive actions that will take place in future (future common)

He will readthe book and then handit back to Jane.

We'll drive up to Weston and staythe night there. (Crg.)

b) an event that will repeatedly take place in the future (future common)

often

He will seldom read this book

Never

sometimes

 

I had better get under that fig tree. I've been asleep. I'llnever getmy work done in this sun. (Eyre)

c) an event completed or not that will take place in the future at some indefinite time (future common)

He will readthis book.

How far my social security will gotoward keeping a roof over her head with rent to pay, food to buy? (O'M.)

d) a single event that will be completed at some definite future moment or period (future common)

then

He will read this book at that time

when you give it to him

When you get to know Pongo better, you will realizethat he is always like this: moody, sombre, full of doubts and misgivings. (Wd.)

I'll drop you right off now so you can do whatever you need to. {Crg.)

e) a single event that will be in progress at some definite future moment (future continuous)

then

He will be reading a book at that time

when you come

Yes, I'm on the bread line! I'llsoon be hangingaround the back door asking you for some stale bread! (C.)

2.1.2.2. an event completed or not or a chain of successive events posterior to a past event (future-in-the-past, continuous or common, will be used here)

He said he would readthe book and putit on the shelf.

He said he wouldoften readthis book.

He said that he would readthis book then.

He said he would readthis book.

He said he would be readingthis book at that time (see above 2.1.2.1.a, b, c, d, e).

 

Tom made me promise I would not tellyou. (M.) I promised I'd takeyou round after the second act. (M) Only a few more minutes, and then she would be drivingaway in Patrick's comfortable car. (Hnt.)

 

Note 1:Occasionally present tense forms may be used to denote future events. The events are presented in this case as taking place in the near future. The time of the action is, as a rule, exactly indicated here.



It comes at seven.

He is coming at seven (soon).

The common form, as a rule, will indicate that this is one of habitual actions which is sure to take place in future, and the continuous form will indicate that something is expected to take place or has been preplanned for this particular occasion. That is why the common form is preferable when you speak about the arrival of planes, trains, ships, etc., which operate on a regular schedule. The continuous form is to be used when speaking about people.

The train comes at seven.

My friend is coming at seven.

"I have finals," I admitted. "The first starts at eight, and I'm not at all sure when I'll be free." (Crg.) Julie's coming, that's what happened. Some time next week. (Stw.)

 

Note 2:Both the future continuous and the future common form may be used to denote a single action in future (see above 2.1.2.1.C, e). But the event is presented differently. The continuous form will indicate that you expect the event to begin and to be in progress in future, but you do not know whether the event will be really completed or not. The common form will indicate that the action will be completed in future.



I shall be seeing you (waiting for you, talking with him) at five. (I want, I expect to see, wait, talk at five. I hope that this action will take place, I shall try to do it, but I can't be absolutely sure that I shall succeed.)

I shall see him at five. (I am quite sure that I shall see him then.)

She'll be coming up for her summer holidays before very long. (Stw.)

 

Note 3:To present events as taking place in the "immediate future" the constructions "to be going to do something", "to be about to do something" are often used in Modem English.

He is going to read this book during the holidays.

He is about to finish reading it soon.

The construction "to be going to do something" in more careful speech, however, is preferable if the event is presented as not contrary to the wish of the doer.

"After I finish, I'm going to call Lawrence Strand," I announced, eyeing the clock. (Crg.)

 

Note 4:If the event is presented as posterior to a past situation (in cases corresponding to those given in Notes 1, 2, 3), then the past tense or the future-in-the past will be used.

He said that the train came at seven.

He said that his friend was coming at seven.

He said that he would see you at five.

He said that he would be seeing you at five.

He said that he was going to read the book during his summer holidays.

I told Snell about dinner and to send the chauffeur to meet the seven-fifty as a gentleman was arriving by it. (Chr.)

16. What is the difference in presentation of the event by the constructions “used to do” and “would do”?

17. The difference between “gone (to)” and “been (to)”?


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