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Exercise1. As you read the text

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  4. Exercise1. Read the text more carefully and answer the questions.
  5. Exercise1. Write out vocabulary, transcribe and translate them.

a) look for the answers to these questions:

1. Who is the “zharshy” in wedding ceremony? 2. Explain the meaning of the following words: kalym, saukele, esekashu, yurta. 3. What rituals have you learned about from the text? 4. How many parts is the wedding ceremony consisted of? 5. What is the role of relatives in the ceremony? 6. Describe the clothing of the bride.


b) find in the text the facts the author gives to illustrate the following:

1. The ceremony consisted of 3 stages. 2. After crossing the threshold of the nomad tend the bridegroom had to bow three times. 3. It was preferred to marry off song and daughters in autumn or in the end of summer.


Exercise2. Use the topical vocabulary in answering the following problem questions:


1. The variety of holidays and festivals in all social communities is determined by the diversity of their characters. One can talk about international, national, cultural, religious, ethnic etc. holidays.

Please, give examples of these holidays and say which of them is your favourite and why.


2. National customs and traditions have been historically associated with seasonal changes of the year. The celebration of the magic force of the first day can be seen in the pagan traditions of marking the first day of winter, spring, having festivals in honor of natural forces- the Sun, the Moon (e.g. Sunday, Monday).

Do you know about any other folk holidays marking the seasonal changes? What is the role of such holidays in the cultural development of a nation and in securing the community of national customs and traditions?


3. Some young people refuse to observe the old rituals and have a wedding party considering it a terrible nuisance and a waste of money. What is your idea of celebrating a wedding? Should the old customs and traditions be observed or should it be held in an absolutely new manner?


4. What part do you think the national cuisine plays in the celebration of different holidays and festivals? Can you describe some Kazakh (Russian, English, French, German etc.) special dishes associated particularly with celebration?


Exercise3. Here is an extract of someone talking about a festival using rather informal language. Write it as a more formal description, using words and expression from the box instead of the underlined words and making any other necessary changes.

Parade atmospheric focus be believed to associate

Pagan symbolize sombre superstitious flamboyant

Raucous trace

Well, it’s called the Festival of flowers, and it’s all to do with the coming of spring, after the dark, serious winter months. It all started with a religious tradition of taking flowers to the church to offer them to God. Spring flowers are the a main thing in the festival, and there’s always a big gang of people marching through the streets dressed in traditional costumes. It’s all very lively and extremely colourful and rather noisy,and it has a great feeling about it. The flowers mean new life, and people thought they would be guaranteed a good harvest later in the year if they were offered to God. Nowadays most people don’t have such funny beliefs about nature, but there’s still a really old, pre-Christian atmosphere about it all…



FOCUS American holidays

Americans has three national holidays with many countries Easter Sunday, Christmas Day, and New Year’s Day.

Easter, which falls on a spring Sunday that varies from year to year, celebrates the Christian belief in the resurrection of Jesus Christ. For Christians, Easter is a day of religious services and the gathering of family Many Americans follow old traditions of coloring hard-boiled eggs and giving children baskets of candy. On the next day, Easter Monday, the president of the United States holds an annual Easter egg hunt on the White House lawn for young children.

Christmas Day, December 25, is another Christian holiday; itmarks the birth of the Christ Child. Decorating houses and yards with lights, putting up Christmas trees, giving gifts, and sending greeting cards have become traditions even for many non-Christian Americans

New Year’s Day, of course, is January 1.The celebration of this holiday begins the night before, when Americans gather to wish each other a happy and prosperous coming year.

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Exercise5. Read the short passages and answer the questions about them giving your opinions to the point. | Uniquely American holidays
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