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Grammar practice




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Lesson two

Oral topic: Pharmaceutical Education

Grammar: 1. Indefinite Active. 2. Pronouns. 3. Degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs. Comparative constructions.

 

Part i

Grammar practice

 

Indefinite (Simple) tenses active

Table 1

 

  вопрос утверждение отрицание  
Will I you we they he she live see I you we they he she will live see I you we they he she will not live see F U T U R E
Do Does I you we they he she live see I you we they he she live see lives sees I you we they he she   don’t live see doesn’t live see P R E S E N T
Did I you we they he she live see I you we they he she lived saw I you we they he she didn’t live see P A S T

 

 

Time markers:

Present – usually, always, every day, as a rule, sometimes, often, seldom;

Past – yesterday, last week (month, year), three days ago, in April, on Saturday, in 2011, the day before yesterday;

Future – tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, tonight, next week (month, year), in a day (week, month), in 2 hours.

 

 

“to be, to have” in the Indefinite (Simple) Tenses

Study the table and do exercises given below.

Table 2

 

  Present Past Future
to be I am I he she it   we you they was   were I shall be
he she it   we you they is   are he she it will be  
we shall be
you they will be
to have I have I he she it   we you they had I shall have
he she it   we you they has   have he she it will have
we shall have
you they will have

 

 

Exercise 1. Practise the usage of the verbs “to be, to have” in the Present, Past and Future Simple. Make up your own sentences.



Model: I am a student now. A year ago I was a schoolgirl (boy). In 5 years I will be a pharmacist.

Exercise 2. Fill in the gaps with to be, to have in Present, Past and Future Simple:

1. Last year I … a schoolboy, but now I … a student at a Medical University.

2. We … good friends now, but not very long ago we … only neighbours.

3. We … lectures and seminars every day but Saturday and Sunday.

4. There … 200 000 people in our town, but ten years ago there … only 50 000.

5. They … the exam in mathematics last week.

6. I … my breakfast at 8 o’ clock.

7. Usually I … in time for my lesson, but yesterday I … late.

8. She … a laboratory class today.

9. I … busy tomorrow.

10. They … a meeting next week.

11. We … an examination in Chemistry this term.

12. You … an English class in 2 hours.

 

 

Exercise 3. Use the verb “to be” in a proper form.

John … an old friend of mine. We … friends even when we … children. We went to school together, played together after the lessons and everybody thought we … brothers. Now we … students of a medical school. John wants to become a dentist and I … sure that he … a good specialist because he works hard to master his profession. Tomorrow John … twenty. Every year John’s birthday … a great occasion not only for his family but for all his friends. They will come to his party and I …very glad to go there and say “Happy birthday!” to my best friend.



Exercise 4.Open the brackets and use the verbs in Present Simple.

1. Training of a pharmacist ... (include) many subjects common to the medical curriculum.

2. He ... (not/study) at the pharmaceutical faculty.

3. Chemistry ... (be) an interesting subject.

4. What entrance exams ... (students/take) to enter a pharmaceutical faculty?

5. How long ... (the study/last) at the pharmaceutical faculty?

6. When ... (your classes/be over/usually)?

7. Our library ... (have) many books on medicine.

8. They ... (not/attend) classes regularly.

9. He (to do) research in organic chemistry and bioorganic chemistry.

10. I (not to think) that they (to work) hard enough to pass their exams successfully.

 

 

Exercise 5. Say what your friend (friends) usually does (do) at practical classes, lectures and seminars. Use the following word combinations:

At the English class:

to read the texts, to ask and answer the questions, to write word dictations, to learn new English words, to translate from Russian into English, to listen to the recordings, to repeat after the speaker, to imitate, to listen to the teacher, to do tests, to fulfill grammar control works, to do written assignments.

At the lecture:

to listen to the lecturer, to take notes, to write down (to put down), to ask questions.

At the seminar:

to make a report, to ask questions, to take part in the discussion, to clear up, to ask the teacher (instructor) to explain smth., to fulfill tasks.

 

 

Exercise 6. Translate the passage into English adding to each sentence one of the given adverbs: usually, sometimes, always, every day, often, seldom.

Я встаю в 7 часов утра. Мой завтрак состоит из чашки кофе и бутерброда. Я добираюсь до своего университета на автобусе. Около университета я встречаю своего друга, и мы вместе идем на занятия. Первая лекция начинается в 8.30. У нас одна-две лекции и один-два семинара. После занятий я иду в библиотеку. Я возвращаюсь домой около 6 часов вечера. По вечерам мне звонят мои друзья, и мы обсуждаем планы на завтра.

 

Exercise 7.Make up special questions to the passage of ex.6 in Present Simple using the interrogative pronouns and adverbs: who, what, when, what time, where, how, how many.

Exercise 8. Find regular and irregular verbs. Write down their three forms:

To become, to serve, to pass, to spend, to learn, to give, to master, to train, to deal, to receive, to treat, to acquaint, to live, to develop, to use, to take, to set, to go, to begin, to feel, to come, to enter, to speak, to know, to discuss.

Exercise 9. Open the brackets and use the verbs in Past Simple. Make these sentences negative and interrogative.

1. My brother (to enter) the University last year.

2. Our vacation (to begin) in July.

3. We (to work) hard the hole term.

4. The teacher (to find) some mistakes in my dictation.

5. He (to come) to see me last week.

6. The students (to discuss) this problem with their tutor yesterday.

7. He (to take) three exams last term, but (to pass) only two.

8. We (to meet) at the University two years ago and (to become) good friends.

9. He (to give) me a good piece of advice.

10. We (to spend) a lot of time in the library.

11. I am afraid that he (not to pass) his exam in chemistry yesterday.

12. The students (to write) a composition last Monday.

Exercise 10. Put questions and give possible answers.

1. Last week we went to … (Where …)

2. Yesterday I met … (Whom …)

3. I learned English at … (Where …)

4. … gave me advice. (Who …)

5. I heard … with my own ears. (What …)

6. My brother came home yesterday at … (When …)

7. I got to town by … (How …)

8. He liked reading … stories when he was a boy. (What kind of …)

Exercise 11. Ask your group-mates what they did/didn’t do yesterday:

 

Model: to see the film - Ann, did you see the film yesterday? a) - No, I didn’t. I was busy. b) - Certainly, I did.

To get up early, to go to the University, to be in time for the lessons, to attend the lecture, to take exam in English, to have lunch at the University, to come home after lessons, to do homework, to watch TV.

 

Note: Saying “will do” we usually decide to do it at the time of speaking without planning before. That is why the Future Simple Tense often goes with:

 

Probably I’ll probably come home late tonight.
(I )expect We expect our friend will phone soon.
I’m (not) sure I’m not sure you’ll pass your exam.
I don’t think I don’t think the exam will be difficult.

 

Exercise 12. Open the brackets and use the verbs in Future Simple using the above mentioned phrases where possible.

1. I (to play) chess tomorrow. 2. You (to read) this book next week? 3. I (not to see) him tomorrow. 4. Where you (to go) next summer? 5. They (to become) pharmacists in 5 years. 6. We (to have) a lecture in 2 hours. 7. Why she (to come) home so late tomorrow? 8. We (to stay) at home after tomorrow. 9. What you (to do) in the evening? 10. In a year she (to be) a second-year student. 11. You (to get) a diploma of a pharmacist in five years.12. We (to study) toxicological chemistry next year.

 

 

Exercise 13. Put questions and give possible answers.

1. Premedical training of students will take … years. (How many years …)

2. We shall study special subjects in … years. (When …)

3. In chemistry classes the students will learn about … (What …)

4. We shall have practice … (Where …)

5. During the period of internship an intern will have… (What …)

6. … will make experiments in the chemical laboratory next week. (Who…)

 

 

Exercise 14. Master the usage of the Present, Past and Future Simple. Do it according to the models.

 

Model 1: I study at the University, and you? - I study at the University too. My father studied at the Institute twenty years ago. And my son will study there in fifteen years.
Model 2: I play chess well, and you? - I don’t play chess well. My friend plays chess well. He played chess well even in his childhood.

1. I cook well, and you? 2. I always read newspapers, and you? 3. I know English well, and you? 4. I work at maths every day, and you? 5. I attend all the lectures, and you? 6. She often comes here, and you? 7. I use computer in my work every day, and you?

 

 

Exercise 15. Put the verbs in brackets in the Present, Past or Future Indefinite.

1. My friend (to study) at the pharmaceutical faculty of the Medical University. 2. As a rule students in Belarus (not to pay) for their education. 3. I (to take) my final exams in two months. 4. He (not to come) to the lecture yesterday, he (to be) ill. 5. My sister (to graduate) from the medical school next year. 6. We (to attend) lectures in physiology once a week. 7. I (not to see) my friend at the university yesterday. 8. Students (to take) examinations at the end of each term. 9. I (to buy) this drug at our chemist’s a week ago. 10. They (to study) special subjects in the senior years. 11. Tomorrow they (to make) experiments with different chemical substances in the chemical laboratory. 12. Every year the scientific conference (to take) place at the university.

Exercise 16. Translate the sentences into English. Use the Indefinite Tenses.

1. Я окончил школу в 2012 году. 2. Сейчас я - студент медицинского университета. 3. Мой друг будет учиться в высшем учебном заведении нашего города. 4. Они учились на подготовительном отделении в прошлом году. 5. Абитуриенты сдают тестирование по химии, биологии и русскому языку. 6. На 1 курсе мы будем изучать фундаментальные дисциплины. 7. Эти студенты занимались научной работой на 5 курсе. 8. Раз в неделю занятия по химии проходят в химической лаборатории. 9. Студенты фармацевтического факультета будут проходить практику в аптеках города. 10. Два года назад он защитил диссертацию. 11. Учеба в аспирантуре не является обязательной. 12. Мы будем изучать физические и лечебные свойства лекарственных веществ. 13. После окончания университета студенты будут работать провизорами, управляющими аптек, химиками - аналитиками.

 

pronouns

Personal pronouns Possessive pronouns
Именительный падеж Кто? что? Объектный падеж Кого? что? кому? Притяжательные местоимения Чей? чья? чьё? чьи? Притяжательное местоимение - существительное
I You He She It We They me you him her it us them my your his her its our their mine yours his hers its ours theirs

Note: its it’s (it is)

 

Exercise 17. Fill in the gap with necessary pronouns.

1. … am a student of the Medical School. 2. He often writes to … parents. 3. Does … help her brother? 4. I often see … in the park with his dog. 5. She likes … work very much. 6. Is Tom a friend of …? – No, he is only my colleague. 7. We go to the country with some friends of … every weekend. 8. The students usually have … exams in January and in June. 9. These magazines are very interesting. Read … at home. 10. Do you know these students? – Yes, … are from our group. 11. Translate this text without a dictionary. … is not very difficult. 12. Give … your pen, please. Thank … . 13. We have lectures every day; we attend … regularly. 14. We shall study constituents of drugs and … composition.

 

 

Exercise 18. Replace italicized words with corresponding pronouns

1. We carry out experiments in the laboratories. 2. We shall study organic chemistry. 3. Some of the students belong to the scientific society. 4. There are 13 students in my group. 5. My sister entered the university last year. 6. I don’t see my brother often. 7. Mike helps his fiend very much. 8. The boys ask Mary to sing.

 

 

Exercise 19. Translate into English.

1. Я вас не могу видеть. 2. У него нет машины. 3. Его машина за городом. 4. Дайте мне свою машину. 5. Я не могу дать вам свою машину. 6. Возьмите ее машину. 7. Они не дают нам свои машины. 8. Я хочу навестить своего друга в Минске. 9. Откройте свои книги. 10. Дайте ей ее конспект. 11. Дайте ему его телефон. 12. Дайте нам наши паспорта. 13. Дайте им их паспорта. 14. Его сестра – моя подруга. 15. Ее брат – их друг. 16. Дайте мне свою зачетку. 17. Дайте ему их зачетки. 18. Дайте нам ваши зачетки. 19. Дайте им наши зачетки. 20. Дайте ей его зачетку.

 

 

Digress of comparison of adjectives and adverbs

Положительная степень Сравнительная степень Превосходная степень
big short nice high clever large bigger shorter nicer higher cleverer larger the biggest the shortest the nicest the highest the cleverest the largest
good (well) bad (badly) many, much little far better worse more less further the best the worst the most the least the furthest
attentive practical difficult more attentive more practical more difficult the most attentive the most practical the most difficult

comparative constructions

Для выражения сравнения существует также ряд конструкций

Конструкция Значение Перевод Пример
As … as Равная степень качества Такой же … как He is as cheerful as his brother.
Not so (as)… as Отрицание равенства степени качества Не такой … как This classroom is not so small as that one.
More … than     Less … than Сравнение степеней качества предметов Более … чем     Менее … чем This task is more important than that task.
The + сравнит. степень the + сравнит. степень   the warmer …, the better Зависимость одного от другого Чем + сравнит. степень, тем + сравнит. степень   Чем теплее …, тем лучше The warmerthe weather, the better I feel. (Чем теплее погода, тем лучше я себя чувствую)
Much } + сравн.ст. far   much cheaper     far more serious Значительное превышение качества одного предмета над другим     гораздо (намного) дешевле гораздо серьезнее   Let's go by car. It’s much cheaper. Her illness was far more serious than we at first thought.
a bit } + сравн.ст. a little a little warmer Незначительное превышение Немножко (чуточку) теплее It’s a little warmer today than it was yesterday.

Olderиспользуетсяпри сравнении по возрасту.

He is older than my brother. Он старше моего брата.

Elderозначает «старший в семье».

My elder brother is a doctor. Мой старший брат – врач.

Further– дальше и дальнейший.

Farther – дальше.

Go a bit further/ farther. Пройдите немного дальше.
My further investigations will deal with cell. Мои дальнейшие исследования будут связаны с клеткой.

 

 

Exercise 20. Form comparative and superlative degrees:

Old, young, large, wide, difficult, good, hot, bad, much, easy, early, well, many, big, interesting, dangerous, far, late.

Exercise 21. Translate:

1. The longer (is) the night, the shorter (is) the day. 2. The more we read, the more we know. 3. He can speak German twice as fast. 4. Your room is three times as large as mine. 5. We shall drive at a speed as great as 90 km per hour. 6. New streets are usually not so (as) narrow as old streets. 7. She does not know Moscow so (as) well as we do. 8. This boy is as tall as my brother. 9. The earlier you get up, the more you will do.

Exercise 22. а) Read and translate the text:


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