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КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА N 1




1. Времена группы Indefinite (действительный залог).

2. Времена группы Indefinite (страдательный залог).

3. Оборот there + be.

4. Степени сравнения прилагательных.

 

 

ВАРИАНТ 1

1. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык

1. Не wakes up around six o'clock and has a cup of coffee.

2. I hate authority. It spoils the relations between parent and child.

3. I never knew of this woman's existence till half an hour ago.

4. We'll just talk about the weather and the crops for a few minutes and then we'll have dinner.

5. I hope we shall see something of you while you are in London.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждой из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. She was woken from her sleep by his singing.

2. The news will be announced after dinner.

3. Nowadays when it is necessary to have a very tall building, the frame of it is first built in steel and then the building is completed in concrete.

3. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие оборот there + be. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на вреня глагола to be.

1. There were only a few higher educational establishments which trained geologists and mining engineers in our country at that time.

2. There are many reasons of weathering (эрозия, выветривание} , but much depends on the change in temperature.

3. There is not a single internal support for the roof of this building.

4. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык.

1. She had the kind of heart trouble that comes to much older people.

2. His reading was more extensive than ever before.

3. It's the biggest risk I've ever had to take.

4. He had the consolation of noting that his friend was less sluggish than before.

5. The sooner this is done, the better.

6. The sun is not so hot today as I thought it would be.

5. Прочтите и устно переведите текст:

GREAT BRITAIN

Great Britain (official name - the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) is situated on two large islands, the larger of which is Great Britain, the smaller is Ireland. In addition to these two islands Great Britain includes over five hundred small Islands. The total area of Great Britain is 240,000 sq. kms, its population is 56,000,000 people.

In the north-west and west the country is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea, in the east - by the North Sea. The island of Great Britain is separated from France by the English Channel. Northern Ireland, which is a part of Great Britain and which is situated on the island of Ireland, is separated from Great Britain by the North Channel.

The island of Great Britain is divided into two parts: mountainous (in the north and west of the island) and lowland (in the south and east). There are no very long rivers in Great Britain. The most important rivers are the Thames (the deepest) and the Severn (the longest). The rivers seldom freeze in winter. Due to moderating influence of the sea Great Britain has an insular climate, rather humid and mild, without striking discrepancy between seasons.

Great Britain consists of four main parts: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Administratively Great Britain is divided into 55 counties. The biggest cities of Great Britain are London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, Edinburgh, and Cardiff.

England is the largest part of Great Britain (it occupies over 50% of the territory and its population amounts to 83% of the total population of Great Britain). Wales is a peninsula in the south-west of the island of Great Britain. It occupies about 9% of its territory with the population of 4.8% of the total population. The Welsh speak their own language. Scotland is the most northern part of Great Britain with the territory of 32% of the total territory and with the population of 9% of the total population of Great Britain. Northern Ireland occupies the north-east part of the island of Ireland. Its territory amounts to 5.2% of the total territory of Great Britain. The main cities of Northern Ireland are Belfast and Londonderry.

Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. Officially the head of the state is the Queen (or the King). However, the power of the Queen in Great Britain is not absolute. She acts only on the advice of the ministers and Parliament. There is no written constitution in Great Britain. The main principles of British legislation are expressed in other documents, like "Magna Charta", "Habeas Corpus Act", "Bill of Rights", the Parliamentary Act which decided the position of the House of Lords, the Judicature Act, etc. The British legislation does not provide written guarantees of individual political rights.

Parliament in Great Britain exists since 1265 and is the eldest Parliament in the world. It consists of two Houses - the House, of Lords and the House of Commons. The House of Lords consists of 1000 peers who are not elected by the people. The House of Commons is a nation-wide representative body which is elected by the people at a general election not less frequently than once in 5 years. After the general election the Queen appoints the head of the government - the Prime Minister. As a rule the Prime Minister is the leader of the party that has won the election. The Prime Minister appoints the ministers to compose the government.

There are two main political parties in Great Britain: the Conservative party and the Labour party. The Conservative party came into being in the 19th century as a result of the evolution of the Tory party. The Labour party was founded In 1900. Since 1906 it has borne the name of the Labour Party. For the first time the Labour Party won the election in 1945.

Great Britain is a highly-developed industrial country. The main fields of British industry are machine-building, ship-building, metallurgy, electronics, etc.

6. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What are the main parts of Great Britain? 2. How many islands is Great Britain situated on? What are the largest? 3. When was the British constitution adopted? 4. Who is the head of the state in Great Britain? 5. What is the official name of Great Britain?

ВАРИАНТ 2

1. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждой из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Her son works near here and so, after her husband's death, she came down to live here and he boards with her.

2. I saw the announcement in the paper this morning.

3. Croft informed us at breakfast that you told him to bring Mrs Warren and Vivie over here today.

4. I think I shall remain in love with you all my life.

5. The old age pension will keep me in bread, tea and onions, and what more does an old man want?

2. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. They were received with great frankness and charm.

2. Nearly all the furniture will be taken out of the room.

3. I'm not often shocked, you know, but this does shock me a little.

3. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие оборот there + be. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на время глагола to be.

1. There are three main groups of rocks, namely, sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks.

2. There were several other students taking lessons in the big untidy Rondel's studio.

3. As there are no rules to tell us when a picture or statue is right it is usually difficult to explain in words why we feel that it is a great work of art.

4. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык.

1. I suppose Velasquez was a better painter than El Greco.

2. She said this with the shadow of a smile although one could feel that she was more anxious than she wanted to appear.

3. At that time I worshipped Manet. Нis "Olympia" seemed to me the greatest picture of modern times.

4. He looked younger than his years, much younger than Sheila or me.

5. The longer I think of his proposal the 1еss I like it.

6. You are not as nice as people think.

5. Прочтите и устно переведите текст:

The United States of America

After its 200th birthday the United States of America still holds the leading position in the western world. A country that inspired many appellations - "Land of Opportunity", "Melting Pot", "God's Country", is still referred to us as a land of superlatives - "the richest", "the greatest", "the most".

What makes the USA the leader of the western world is its economic, political and military dominance over other countries.

The United States lies in the central part of the North American Continent between the two oceans: the Atlantic Ocean to the East and the Pacific Ocean to the West. Friendly Canada to the north and friendly Mexico to the south are the only countries bordering it.

The USA consists of three separate parts. They are the Hawaiian Islands, situated in the central part of the Pacific Ocean, Alaska separated by the Canadian territory and the rest major part of the USA. The states differ very much in size, population and economic development.

There are many big cities and towns in the USA: New York, San Francisco, Washington, Chicago, Los Angeles are the biggest of them.

The United States of America is a parliamentary republic. The government is divided into three branches: legislative (the US Congress), executive (the President and his Administra­tion) and judicial (the US Supreme Court).

There are two main political parties in the USA: the Demo­cratic (symbolized by a "donkey") and the Republican (its symbol is an "elephant"). The US President is both head of state and government. He is elected for a four-year term. Presidential elections are held every leap year on first Tuesday after first Monday in November. The President is assisted by Secretaries who are the heads of the executive departments.

The Supreme Court consists of Chief Justice and eight Associate Justices who are appointed for life. It is supposed to decide whether a law of the Congress or an executive order of the President is constitutional or not.

The form of US government is based on the Constitution of September 17, 1787, adopted after the War of Independence. In December 1791, the Congress adopted ten amendments to the Constitution, known as the Bill of Rights. The latter enumerated what the government controlled by the oligarchy was not going to be allowed to do, which was, of course, an important democratic gain for people.

The Congress of the United States is composed of two houses, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate represents the states and the House represents the population according to its distribution among the states. All states have electoral requirements of the same nature. First of all they are residence requirements.

Through its power over the purse, the US Congress can control much that relates to foreign policy, also it is a governmental body that determines taxation.

Each of the fifty states of the USA has a constitution patterned after the federal Constitution, with its divisions of power: legislative, executive, and judicial.

The Presidency means not only a man: means an institution - the "executive branch" of the government.

The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country and the head of the judicial branch of US government. The federal and state courts have the power of "Judicial review". Also there are about ninety district courts in different parts of the United States. American judicial practice is firmly committed to the idea of jury trials. The Constitution guarantees them for both criminal and civil cases. According to the US judicial doctrine, "justice is a relationship in which each citizen or group receives due respect and return."

VI. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What are the main political parties in the USA? 2. When are presidential elections held? 3. What does the Supreme Court consist of? 4. When was the US Constitution adopted? 5. Is the USA the biggest country in the world?

 

 

ВАРИАНТ 3

1. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждой из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. She announced to the workers that the experiment was dangerous.

2. It seems to me that I hear a strange noise outside.

3. Of course it can't last, but it will be a wonderful experience for him.

4. He didn't explain the traffic regulations to me.

5. I shall not work any more today; I shall stay with you.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Не will never be allowed into their house again.

2. Their children are not taken good care of at home.

3. Denis was overwhelmed by an emotion that was strange and new.

3. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие оборот there + be. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на время глагола to be.

1. England is an island country and its territory isn't very large. That's why there is no wide range of climatic conditions in it.

2. Practically there are three main systems of measurement today: the British system of units, the Metric system of units and the System of International Units.

3. There was deep peace in Kashima till Mrs Vansuythen arrived.

4. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения и переведите их на русский язык.

1. Не was shorter than I was, and not more than an inch or two taller than Irene, but his shoulders, neck and wrists were strong.

2. The greatest ideas are the simplest.

3. He is much worse now than yesterday.

4. The longer I listened to her story, the more sympathetic I became.

5. Dorothy is less generous than she pretends to be.

6. The western part of the country is not so dry as the eastern part.

5. Прочтите и устно переведите текст:

Canada

Canada consists of almost all of the North American continent north of the US except Alaska. Its total land area of more than 9 mln sq. km makes it the second largest country in the world.

Canada's topography is dominated by the Canadian Shield, an ice-scoured area covering half the country. Most of northern Canada has subarctic or arctic climates, with long winters lasting 8 to 11 months, short sunny summers, and little precipitation. In contrast, the populated south has a variety of climatological landscapes.

The total population according to the census 1981 was about 24 mln people with the average population density of 2.8 per sq. km.

English and French are the official languages of Canada and have equal status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all governmental institutions.

Canada is a federation of 10 provinces and 2 northern territories. The federal Parliament is made up of the House of Commons and the Senate. The leader of the party that wins the largest number of seats in a newly elected House of Commons is asked to form the government.

The civil law follows English common law everywhere except in Quebec, where it follows the Napoleonic Code.

Canada is a world leader in the production of asbestos, nickel and different other elements, forestry products, and ranks first in the world in export of minerals. Although no longer the foremost sector of the economy, agriculture is of major importance to the economy as a whole and still is basic in many areas. Canada is among the world's leading wheat producers and is second in the export of wheat.

Basically, Canada has a free-enterprise economy- A recurrent problem for Canada has been the dominant position of US corporations and investors.

Quebec is Canada's largest province, having an area of nearly 600,000 square miles. The land is rich in raw materials, and the hundreds of fast-flowing rivers have a tremendous hydroelectric power potential. Already Quebec has the highest per capita production of hydropower of any region. Raw materials and power make manufacturing the province's most important industry, but agriculture is still of major importance.

Ontario might quite justifiably be called the heart of Canada. Geographically it is situated at the centre of the country. It has the largest population of any province, in area it is second only to Quebec. One-half of the manufactured produce of Canada comes from Ontario, mainly from the south. Southern Ontario is also the most productive agricultural area in Canada, and the north is rich in timber and minerals. Ontario's capital, Toronto, is the financial centre of Canada.

Saskatchewan and Alberta were the last of the Canadian provinces to be settled. The early history of modern Alberta was much the same as that of Saskatchewan - the fur traders and explorers, a few missionaries living among the Indian tribes, the Northwest Mounted Police bringing law and order to the West in the 1870's, and finally the Canadian Pacific Railway bringing settlers. At present Saskatchewan provides well over half of Canada's annual production of wheat. Other sources of income are oil, coal, natural gas, iron, copper, zinc, gold, silver and uranium.

6. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What can you say about the climate of Canada? 2. What is its political status? 3. Does Canada have one official language? 4. What is the jurisdiction of Canada like? 5. Characterise Canada's economy.

ВАРИАНТ 4

1. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. "Do you often come to these parties?" inquired Jordan of the girl beside her.

2. My mother first heard of him when I was a mere child.

3. I found some matches, climbed on the table, lit the gas lamp, then settled down to read.

4. I'm afraid he'll be a bit lonely, poor darling.

5. I know I'm right, and one of these days you'll realize it.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое я определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. The white exteriors of the tower blocks are decorated at intervals by pleasant blue-coloured panels which appear to be of some ceramic material.

2. It was explained that Roy was unaccountably absent from duty that morning.

3. If you come so late the front door will be locked and you'll have to go by the back door.

3. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие оборот there + be. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на время глагола to be.

1. There is harmony of design in this statue.

2. In Florence, where there was so much art, there were no art schools.

3. There are regions in India where the minimum temperature touches sub zero, while in others it can reach 50 degrees C.

4. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения и переведите их на русский язык.

1. Не found the work easier than he had expected.

2. I was now a more experienced man and it was not easy to deceive me.

3. Apart from the bed there was only a straw-bottomed chair to sit on, for it was the smallest of the rooms.

4. John is less musical than his sister.

5. He became more cautious as he grew older.

6. His skin was not so bronzed as a Tahiti native's.

5. Прочтите и устно переведите тексты:

Australia

Australia is lying south-east of Asia, between the Pacific and Indian oceans. It is the world's smallest continent which is almost completely surrounded by ocean expanses. Its total area is 7,682,300 sq. km.

The continent of Australia is divided into four general topographic regions: a low, sandy eastern coastal plain, the eastern highlands, the central plain, and the western plateau. Although Australia has a wide diversity of climatic conditions, the climate of Australia is generally warm and dry, with no extreme cold and little frost. It changes from comfortably mild in the south to hot in the central interior and north.

The total population in 1986 was about 16 mln people with the average population density of about 2 persons per sq. km. Most Australians are of British or Irish ancestry. More than 99% of the population speaks English.

The capital of Australia is Canberra. Australia has a federal parliamentary government. The Australian federation was formed on January 1, 1901, from six former British colonies, which thereupon became states. The Australian constitution combines the traditions of British parliamentary monarchy with important elements of the US federal system. Powers of the federal government are enumerated and limited. The government consists of the British sovereign and the Australian Parliament.

Australia is the world's largest wool producer and one of the world's largest wheat exporters. The main sources of foreign earnings are wool, food and minerals which also provide raw materials for home processing industry.

New Zealand is situated in the southwest Pacific Ocean on two large islands: the North Island and the South Island. Its total area is 268,112 sq. km.

Less than 1/4 of the territory of the country lies below the 200 m contour line. The South Island is significantly more mountainous than the North Island. New Zealand has temperate, moist ocean climate without marked seasonal variations in temperature or rainfall.

The total population in 1986 was about 3.3 mln people with the average population density of about 12 persons per sq. km. About 85% of the population is classified as Europeans. Most of them are of British descend. English is the universal language. The capital of New Zealand is Wellington. Like the United Kingdom New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy. Officially the head of the state is the British Queen (or the King) whose representative, the governor-general, is appointed for a five-year term. The government of New Zealand is democratic and modeled on that of the United Kingdom.

The economy of New Zealand has traditionally been based on pastoral farming. The last decades have seen a large expansion in the light Industries. New Zealand draws many thousands of tourists to its shores because of the beauty, diversity, and compactness of its natural attractions.

6. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What kind of climate is there in Australia? 2. Who is the head of the state in New Zealand? 3. What are the main branches of the Australian economy? 4. How many states does Australia consist of? 5. What is the capital of New Zealand?


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