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КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА N 5




1. Порядок слов в английском вопросительном предложении (общие, альтернативные, специальные вопросы).

2. Личные местоимения (в именительном и объектном падежах).

3. Притяжательные местоимения (в простой и абсолютной формах).

4. Возвратно-усилительные местоимения.

5. Многозначность still, yet, far.

ВАРИАНТ 1

1. Перепишите следующие предложения; задайте к ним общие вопросы, переведите вопросы на русский язык.

1. My brother works at the plant.

2. We listen to the tapes in the English language laboratory.

3. In the evening I had a rest.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения; задайте к ним альтернативные вопросы, переведите вопросы на русский язык.

1. You studied at the Ufa Petroleum University.

2. I live in the hostel.

3. They will return in a week.

3. Перепишите следующие предложения; задайте к ним специальные вопросы, начиная их с вопросительных слов, данных в скобках; переведите вопросы на русский язык.

1. Mary understands this rule quite well. (Who?)

2. It is a book on chess. (What kind of?)

3. The shipbuilding is largely concentrated in Glasgow and Newcastle. (Where?)

4. I don't want to speak about it. (Why?)

4. Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильный перевод личного местоимения, данного в скобках.

1. Show (ему) your drawing, (her, he, him, them)

2. Tell (им) about your new flat, (they, them, her, we)

3. These flowers are so nice. (Я) am fond of (их). (they, them, us, I)

4. Let's ask (ее) about her foreign language classes, (her, she, it, him)

5. Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильный перевод притяжа­тельного местоимения, данного в скобках.

1. Where are (ее) parents? (his, her, their, its)

2. They are busy with (своими) lessons, (her, his, their, its)

3. I like a friend of (мой) (my, his, mine, your)

4. This is (их) flat, (their, its, her, his)

6. Перепишите предложения. вставив правильную форму возвратно - усилительного местоимения (himself, herself, itself, myself, yourself, themselves, yourselves, ourselves). Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. The boy hurt ... .

2. The dog rose to its foot and shook ... .

3. Children like to hide ... here.

7. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая вникание на различные значения yet, still, far.

1. They have not heard the news yet.

2. Have they left yet?

3. It was still very foggy and extremely cold, there was no noise of people running to and fro.

4. The number of discoveries in the 19th century was much bigger than in the 16th century, but the number of discoveries in the 20th century was still bigger.

5. The shop is not far from here.

6. There are far lower temperatures on other planets than on the Earth.

8. Прочтите и устно переведите текст The Internet.

The Internet

The Internet, a global computer network which embraces millions of users all over the world, began in the United States in 1969 as a military experiment. It was designed to survive a nuclear war. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the Internet will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology is called packet swithing. Vowing to this technology, if some computers on the network are knocked out (by a nuclear explosion, for example), information will just route around them. One such packet-swithing network already survived a war. It was the Iraqi computer network which was not knocked out during the Gulf War.

Most of the Internet host computers (more than 50%) are in the United States, while the rest are located in more than 100 other countries. Although the number of host computers can be counted fairly accurately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet, there are millions, and their number is growing by thousands each month worldwide.

The most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people, who have access to the Internet, use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. However, other popular services are available on the Internet.

In many developing countries the Internet may provide businessmen with a reliable alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunications systems of these countries. Commercial users can communicate over the Internet with the rest of the world and can do it very cheaply. When they send e-mail messages, they only have to pay for phone calls to their local service providers, not for calls across their countries or around the world. But who actually pays for sending e-mail messages over the Internet long distances, around the world? The answer is very simple: a user pays his/her service provider a monthly or hourly fee part of this fee goes towards its costs to connect to a larger service provider. And part of the fee got by the larger provider goes to cover its cost of running a worldwide network of wires and wireless stations.

But saving money is only the first step. If people see that they can make money from the Internet, commercial use of this network will drastically increase. For example, some western architecture companies and garment centers already transmit their basic designs and concepts over the Internet into China, where they are reworked and refined by skilled - but inexpensive - Chinese computer-aided-design specialists.

However, some problems remain. The most important is security. When you send an e-mail message to somebody, this message can travel through many different networks and computers. The data is constantly being directed towards its destination by special computers called routers. Because of this, it is possible to get into any of computers along the route, intercept and even change the data being sent over the Internet. In spite of the fact that there are many strong encoding programs available, nearly all the information being sent over the Internet is transmitted without any form of encoding. But when it becomes necessary to send important information over the network, these encoding programs may be useful. Some American banks and companies even conduct transactions over the Internet. However, there are still both commercial and technical problems which will take time to be resolved.

9. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What is the Internet? 2. What was the Internet originally designed for? 3. What country are most of the Internet host computers in? 4. What is the most popular Internet service? 5. Whom do you have to pay for sending e-mail messages?

ВАРИАНТ 2

1. Перепишите следующие предложения; задайте к ним общие вопросы, переведите вопросы на русский язык.

1. We described pictures in class.

2. I want to speak on this topic.

3. She translates sentences from Russian into English.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения; задайте к ним альтернативные вопросы, переведите вопросы на русский язык.

1. The academic year lasts 10 months.

2. My friend will study French.

3. I have many English books at home.

 

3. Перепишите следующие предложения; задайте к ним специальные вопросы, начиная их с вопросительных слов, данных в скобках; переведите вопросы на русский язык.

1. A teacher thinks of his pupils. (Who?)

2. My friend prepares his homework in the evening. (When?)

3. There is one mistake in your exercise, but a very bad one. (How many?)

4. You were speaking to your friend when I met you. (To whom?)

4.Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильный перевод личного местоимения, данного в скобках.

1. Tell (нам) about this town, (you, us, we, them)

2. (Он) is busy with his lessons. Don't speak to (ним), (him, he, them, she)

3. Look at (нее). She is ill. (her, it, him, she)

4. Jack is telling (нам) about his work, (them, we, you, us)

 

5. Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильный перевод притяжа­тельного местоимения, данного в скобках.

1. What colour are the walls in that room? (Ее) walls are grey. (her, its, his, their)

2. (Мои) parents are young, (his, my, her, our)

3. (Наша) flat has five rooms, (my, his, their, our)

4. This is the best friend of (наш), (our, yours, ours, his)

 

6. Перепишите предложения, вставив правильную форму возвратно-усилительного местоимения (himself, herself, itself, myself, yourself, themselves, yourselves, ourselves). Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. She looked at ... in the mirror.

2. I found a picture of ... at the age of ten.

3. My brother wanted to help us, but we decided to try and do it ... without his help.

7.Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая
внимание на различные значения yet, still, far.

1. I haven't yet come to any conclusion.

2. Has she graduated from the Institute yet?

3. While being still young Lomonosov displayed great abilities for learning and he mastered reading and writing.

4. They may be still working in the laboratory.

5. Did you have to walk far?

6. The new method is far surer than the old one.

8. Прочтите и устно переведите текст Multitasking.

Multitasking

after S. McCartney

From the earliest time people have been trying to do several things simultaneously. They can read a book, cook dinner, talk on the phone, and do many other things at the same time. As car has become available, the time of multitasking has increased: people drive, listen to the radio, eat and smoke in the cars at the same time.

Now an arsenal of new technology (from notebook computers to cellular phones and portable televisions) makes it possible for everyone to multitask all day.

The computer industry introduced the word "multitasking" to the vocabulary. Mainframe computers that handled networks were the original multitaskers. Apple's and Microsoft's software turned millions of personal computers into multitaskers. Today millions of people can set their personal computers to multitask while they are themselves multitasking: talking on the phone, receiving faxes, and looking through newspapers at the same time.

While multitasking is not bad for computers, it may be a bad thing for some people. Psychologists say it is possible for the human brain to process two or more tasks at the same time, but only one of them receives sharp attention. Multitasking makes stressful lives of people more stressful. Experts say that although a lot of people believe that multitasking enhances their productivity, in fact it can reduce it.

Because of the limitation of human brain, multitasking can lead to many mistakes. Indeed, a person who is doing several things at the same time may put the wrong number in a spreadsheet or send a message to the wrong e-mail address. Moreover, people on the other end of the line don't usually like to talk to a person who is doing something else while talking to them. It may alienate the people from the multitasker.

Multitaskers also like to do more than one thing at once even in their leisure time. They cannot watch television without reading a newspaper or have dinner without watching TV.

Now multitasking takes place nearly everywhere. A lot of businessmen and managers are never far from their notebook computers and cellular telephones. They are almost always doing two or three things at once, driving and dialing, speaking and typing on keyboards of their computers. On airplanes they are using their notebook computers to answer e-mail messages. While driving, they are speaking on their cellular phones. "Why wait?' they аsk. "That's the world we live right now."

9. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What is multitasking? 2. Are you a multitasker? 3. How many things are you doing at the same time: at your office, at home, when you are driving to your office or home, when you are watching TV or having dinner? 4. Would you say it's dangerous to be a multitasker? 5. Why are many businessmen and managers multitaskers?

ВАРИАНТ 3

1. Перепишите следующие предложения; задайте к ним общие вопросы, переведите вопросы на русский язык.

1. I am glad to see her.

2. My sister wants to learn to speak Spanish.

3. We answered our teacher's questions in class.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения; задайте к ним альтернативные вопросы, переведите вопросы на русский язык.

1. The autumn term will last four months.

2. Geology is a theoretical science.

3. At present there are about three hundred technical institutions in Great Britain.

3. Перепишите следующие предложения; задайте к ним специальные вопросы, начиная их с вопросительных слов, данных в скобках; переведите вопросы на русский язык.

1. My book is lying on the shelf. (What?)

2. Her husband can explain it. (Who?)

3. My brother has 12 English books. (How many?)

4. It must be done very quickly. (How?)

4. Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильный перевод личного местоимения, данного в скобках.

1. Show (им) the plan of our work, (they, them, him, us)

2. (Она) is helping (ему) with his lessons, (her, she, him, he)

3. His children are so nice. I am fond of (их). (them, they, her, him)

4. This engineer works with (мной). (him, her, me, you)

 

5. Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильный перевод притяжа­тельного местоимения, данного в скобках.

1. (Их) children are in the garden, (our, their, her, his)

2. What colour is (его) bag? (its, her, his, hers)

3. (Ee) sister is married, (hers, his, her, our)

4. My room is large, (твоя) is larger and (ее) is the largest. (your, his, hers, yours, ours)

6. Перепишите предложения, вставив правильную форму возвратно-усилительного местоимения (himself, herself, itself, myself, yourself, themselves, yourselves, ourselves). Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. I ... have never been there.

2. You said so ... .

3. But while we were enjoying ... in eating and drinking, the island all of a sudden trembled and shook us terribly.

 

7. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные значения yet, still, far.

1. It isn't late yet but you can hardly see anything in front of you.

2. Has your mother answered the letter yet?

3. A monument near London Bridge still marks the place where the Great Fire of London began.

4 He gave still another reason.

5 I live far from the Institute but near the city library.

6. This text is far more difficult than the one we translated yesterday.

 

8. Прочтите и устно переведите текст The Spirit of an Organi­zation.

The Spirit of an Organization

After Peter Drucker "The practice of Management"

Two sayings sum up the "spirit of an organization." One is the inscription on Andrew Carnegie's tombstone:

Here lies a man

Who knew how to enlist

In his service

Better men than himself

The other is the slogan of the drive to find jobs for the physically handicapped: "It's the abilities, not the disabilities, that count."

Management by objective tells a manager what he ought to do. The proper organization of his job enables him to do it. But it is the spirit of the organization that determines whether he will do it. It is the spirit that motivates, that calls upon a man's reserves of dedication and effort, that decides whether he will give his best or do just enough to get by.

It is the purpose of an organization to "make common men do uncommon things" - this phrasing is Lord Beveridge's. No organization can depend on genius; the supply is always scarce and always unpredictable. But it is the test of an organization that it make ordinary human beings perform better than they are capable of, that it bring out whatever strength there is in its members and use it to make all other members perform more and better. It is the test of an organization that it neutralize the weaknesses of its members.

Altogether the test of good spirit is not that "people get along together"; it is performance, not conformance. "Good human relations" not grounded in the satisfaction of good performance and the harmony of proper working relations are actually poor human relations and result in poor spirit. They do not make people grow: they make them conform and contract. I shall never forget "the university president who once said to me: "It is my job to make it possible for the first-rate teacher to teach. Whether he gets along with his colleagues or with me - and very few of really good teachers do either - is irrelevant. We certainly have a collection of problem children here - but, boy, do they teach." And when his successor substituted for this a policy of "peace and harmony", both the performance and the spirit of the faculty rapidly went to pieces.

There are five areas in which practices are required to ensure the right spirit throughout management organization.

1. There must be high performance requirements; no condoning of poor or mediocre performance; and rewards must be based on performance.

2. Each management job must be a rewarding job in itself rather than just a step in the promotion ladder.

3. There must be rational and just promotion system.

4. Management needs a "charter" spelling out clearly who has the power to make life-and-death decisions affecting a manager; and there should be some way for a manager to appeal to a higher court.

5. In its appointments management must demonstrate that it realizes that integrity is the absolute requirement of a manager, the one quality that he has to bring with him and cannot be expected to acquire later on.

A man should never be appointed to a managerial position if his vision focuses on people's weaknesses rather than on their strengths. He should be a realist; and no one is less realistic than the cynic. A man should never be appointed if he is more interested in the question: "Who is right?" than in the question: "What is right?" Management should never appoint a man who considers intelligence more important than integrity.

The men with whom a man works, and especially his subordinates, know in a few weeks whether he has integrity or not. They may forgive a man a great deal: incompetence, ignorance, insecurity or bad manners. But they will not forgive him lack of integrity. Nor will they forgive higher management for choosing him.

9. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What sayings sum up the "spirit of an organization"? 2. What is the purpose of an organization? 3. Why is performance the test of good spirit? 4. What man should never be appointed to a managerial position? 5. What quality will the subordinates never forgive a manager?

ВАРИАНТ 4

1. Перепишите следующие предложения; задайте к ним общие вопросы, переведите вопросы на русский язык.

1. The candidate submitted his documents.

2. The continent of Antarctica lies at and around the South Pole.

3. She is always attentive in class.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения; задайте к ним альтернативные вопросы, переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. The head engineer gave his instructions to the workers.

2. George was showing his mother's photo to his friend.

3. We ask each other questions.

3. Перепишите следующие предложения; задайте к ним специальные вопросы, начиная их с вопросительных слов, данных в скобках; переведите вопросы на русский язык.

1. The war ruined many cities. (What?)

2. A mother speaks of her children. (Who?)

3. Summer is the best season for travelling. (Which?)

4. You went skiing yesterday in spite of the weather. (When?)

4. Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильный перевод личного местоимения, данного в скобках.

1. (Он) is fond of reading. Give these books to (ему), (him, he, her, us)

2. (Они) are in the classroom. Let's go there and tell (им) about our plans, (they, us, them, him)

3. (Мы) shall test this device tomorrow, (us, we, you, they)

4. Look at (него). (he, her, him, they)

5. Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильный перевод притяжа­тельного местоимения, данного в скобках.

1. This classroom is (наша), (our, its, ours, their)

2. Don't take (ее) pen, take (мою), (my, his, her, mine, hers)

3. Nick is helping (своему) friend with (его) English. (her, his, their, hers)

4. Ann is busy with (своими) lessons. (Ee) father is dead, (their, his, her, hers)

6. Перепишите предложения, вставив правильную форму возвратно усилительного местоимения (himself, herself, itself, myself, yourself, themselves, yourselves, ourselves). Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. I want him to do it . . . .

2. She fell down and hurt ... .

3. They dressed ... "all in their best" and at last went to the theatre.

7. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные значения yet, still, far.

1. "Are you ready to translate the text?" - "Not yet."

2. Have they taken their exams yet?

3. Though she is very old she still does a lot of things about the house.

4. My friend's interest in physics is as great as that in chemistry but his interest in mechanics is still greater.

5. Their office is as far away from here as ours.

6. The distance from the Sun to the Earth is far greater than that from the Moon.

8. Прочтите и устно переведите тексты Advertising и Marketing.

Advertising

Advertising is any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of products, services, or ideas by an identifiable individual or organization. It flourishes mainly in free-market, profit-oriented countries. It is one of the most important factors in accelerating the distribution of products and helping to raise the standard of living. Advertising cannot turn a poor product or service into a good one. But what it can do - and does -is to create an awareness about both old and new products and services. So three main objectives of advertising are: 1) to produce knowledge about the product or service; 2) to create preference for it; and 3) to stimulate thought and action about it.

Advertisers. Most companies that advertise extensively have advertising managers, or brand managers. Because these people help to coordinate the company's advertising program with its sales program and with the company's advertising agency, they must have aptitudes for both advertising and management.

Media. All media use salesmen to sell advertising space or broadcasting time. Media salesmen must be knowledgeable about business and skilled in salesmanship.

Advertising Agencies. A variety of specialists is required in an advertising agency because it develops advertising programs, prepares advertisements, and places them in media.

Marketing

As defined by the committee on definitions of the American Marketing Association, marketing is "the performance of business activities directed toward and incident to, the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer or user."

Today discovering demand, managing demand, and physically supplying demand constitute the three major divisions of Marketing effort undertaken by many firms. Marketing management approached this status in the 1950's when the General Electric Company enunciated a policy declaring that "marketing begins with the consumer." By discovering and filling unmet wants, its marketing program was designed to produce what General Electric could sell because customers had certain unmet wants. Subsequently, having what you could sell instead of trying to "high pressure" customers into buying what you have required provided the use of marketing research and environment "scanning" of conditions affecting business.

The key concept of market selection and product planning is the Product Life Cycle. It predicts that any product passes through various stages between its life and death (introduction - growth - maturity - decline). So companies can make better marketing decisions if they find out where each of their product stands in its life cycle.

 

9. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What is advertising? 2. Can you name three main objectives of advertising? 3. How is marketing defined by the committee on definitions of the American Marketing Association? 4. When did the General Electric Company enunciate a policy declaring that "marketing begins with the consumer"? 5. What stages does any product pass between its life and death?


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