Студопедия

КАТЕГОРИИ:

АстрономияБиологияГеографияДругие языкиДругоеИнформатикаИсторияКультураЛитератураЛогикаМатематикаМедицинаМеханикаОбразованиеОхрана трудаПедагогикаПолитикаПравоПсихологияРиторикаСоциологияСпортСтроительствоТехнологияФизикаФилософияФинансыХимияЧерчениеЭкологияЭкономикаЭлектроника


КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА N 3




1. Времена группы Perfect (действительный залог).

2. Времена группы Perfect (страдательный залог).

3. Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

4. Бессоюзное подчинение придаточных предложений.

5. Повелительное наклонение.

6. Условные предложения.

7. Многозначность as, since, for, too.

ВАРИАНТ 1

1. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. We knew that as a girl she had lived in the country.

2. I'm afraid he will have posted the letter by the time we come. We can't prevent it.

3. I have been uneasy all the afternoon about what they must think of us.

4. She saw at once that nothing had been touched.

5. What has been done this summer cannot have been done in vain.

6. The business has been taken over by a new company.

 

2. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. It was a pity that she was ill and could not go.

2. I think, when I'm twenty-five, then I may get control of money.

3. He looked sixty, but I knew he must be much less than that.

4. You saw me, and I had to tell you what had happened.

 

3. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение придаточных предложений.

1. Will you show me the new books you've bought?

2. The flat they lived in was not very imposing, but it was quiet and well located. I think he has made a mistake in his calculations.

4. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод повелительного наклонения.

1. Show me your passport, please.

2. Don't make so much noise.

3. Let's tell somebody what happened.

 

5. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие сложные предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения условия.

1. Perhaps, it would have been better for me if my father's will had prevailed and I were now but an honest carpenter.

2. He was a stranger to George and he was aware that if he met him in the street he would not recognize him.

3. The trip to town will take half an hour if there is no traffic delay.

 

6. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая различные значения слов as, since, for, too.

1. She was trying to open her bag as she walked by Annabel's side along the corridor, talking.

2. And since you've been here, everything has certainly been worse than it's ever been.

3. I haven't closed my eyes for forty-eight hours.

4. He has come too late.

 

7. Прочтите и устно переведите текст. Переведите письменно пятый абзац текста.

Where Will We Put the Heat?

Every time you turn on a light or the toaster or television, you also turn on hot water. The electricity you use comes from an electric power plant. In making electricity there is usually a lot of waste heat. The easiest way to get rid of the waste heat is in water, so most power plants are built near lakes or rivers. They take in cold water to cool the machinery and put back water that is 10 to 20 degrees warmer. So you turn on the hot water from your power plant every time you use electricity.

Sometimes heat is needed and valuable. It warms our homes in winter, for example. But so far no one has learned to use the heat from power plants. Usually it is not hot enough to heat homes, schools, and other buildings. But it is a lot of waste in one place, and that is what the word pollution means. So people are becoming worried about waste heat or thermal pollution.

Here are some things that may happen when you turn on the hot water in a lake or river. An increase in temperature causes a fish's life to speed up - it is more active, it needs more food, it grows faster. If water is warmed 10 degrees, a fish needs twice as much oxygen as before. But as water heats up, it holds less oxygen. So a fish may die from lack of oxygen, a gas needed by nearly all living things. Thermal pollution is especially bad for trout and salmon, which need cold water that is rich in oxygen.

Thermal pollution may cause fish to lay their eggs before they should, or keep fish eggs from hatching. It аlso helps the growth of bacteria and other organisms that cause fish diseases. Thermal pollution speeds the growth of algae and water weeds, too.

A few years ago there was so little thermal pollution that no one worried about it. But people are using more and more elec­tricity, and many power plants are being built. Many of the new ones use nuclear power. They produce even more waste heat than power plants that burn coal or oil.

A big nuclear plant needs 850,000 gallons of water a minute for cooling. This water then pours back into a river or lake, about 15 degrees warmer than before. That is a lot of hot water to put in one spot. But the troubles caused by thermal pollution may have only begun. About fifty nuclear plants are now working. Many more are being built or planned, and they may be operating by the end of the century. If we were to cool them the way we do now, it would take a third of all the water flowing in the United States just for cooling power plants.

One thing is certain: great amounts of heat will be produced by power plants in the future. The heat does not have to kill life in rivers and lakes. To prevent this, we can do several things. We can find ways to use less electricity. We can design and build power plants that are less wasteful than the ones used now. We can find new uses for waste heat. And we can build cooling towers that release the heat into the air. If we don't do all of these things, we will really be in hot water.

 

8. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы.

1. Why are most power plants built near lakes or rivers? 2. Is heat from power plants hot enough to heat homes? 3. What water do trout and salmon need? 4. Does thermal pollution help the growth of bacteria and algae? 5. What must we do to prevent thermal pollution?

 

ВАРИАНТ 2

1. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждой из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. They had washed him and he had not come out of his coma.

2. Why has he come here?

3. By this time tomorrow he will have completed his work.

4. The article has been often referred to.

5. The proposal has not been approved of.

6. He was an outstanding person and had been always spoken about with admiration.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. They will have to stay for the time being.

2. "I can do it," he said softly.

3. One day the people of the world may develop a real world government.

4. We must walk fast to get to the station.

3. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение придаточных предложений.

1. They called us up the day they arrived.

2. I placed an order for the monograph the professor was referring to in his yesterday's lecture.

3. He probably didn't know the book had been published.

 

4. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод повелительного наклонения.

1. Don't let him do it!

2. Open the window, please.

3. Let them go there!

5. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие сложные предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения условия.

1. Не won't finish his work in time, unless he works hard.

2. If he were here, he would help us.

3. They would not have caught cold if they had put on warm coats.

6.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая различные значения слов as, since, for, too.

1. As I was coming here, I met your brother.

2. Since the documents haven't arrived, we cannot load the goods.

3. Themanager will be there too.

4. He walked quickly for he was in a great hurry.

7. Прочтите и устно переведите тексты. Переведите письменно текст Noise Pollution.

The Attack on Britain's Environment

Most of the Western nations have the same basic environmental problems, but they take different forms in each country. Here you can read about some of the dangers facing Britain's environment.

Air Pollution

One of Britain's environmental successes has been the control of air pollution, especially in London. Thirty years ago hundreds of people died every year from the dreadful London smogs. Since then London and some other cities have become "smokeless zones", areas where no coal fires are allowed. But now the increase in traffic is threatening serious air pollution in our cities again.

Noise Pollution

Traffic and aircraft can cause serious noise pollution. Aircraft are very noisy when they take off and the noise spreads over a wide area. Heathrow airport, near London, is one of the busiest airports in the world. Planes are only allowed to take off and land at Heathrow between six in the morning and eleven at night, but during the day fifty planes take off and land there every hour.

Water Pollution

There has been bad pollution of Britain's rivers, and the government has tried to stop it. There are now strict laws against water pollution, though it still quite often happens accidentally. Britain and France share the problem of oil pollution from the Channel. This has caused great damage to beaches and wildlife.

Cars and Roads

The need for new roads causes great environmental difficul­ties. They often spoil the countryside and bring noise and air pollution to thousands of homes. Since 1958 the population of Britain has increased by 11 per cent, but the number of cars has increased by 400 per cent.

Cars cause other problems too: thousands of people die in car accidents; car parks use valuable space in towns and cities; cars use a lot of our limited amount of oil.

Friends of the Earth suggest that the bicycle is the best way to travel because it's cheap, quiet and riding it keeps you healthy. However, there are far fewer cyclists in Britain than in some other European countries, so our roads aren't built for cycling. It can be dangerous to cycle in large cities as British motorists don't seem to notice cyclists. Some people think that only buses and bicycles should be allowed in our city centres.

Do You Know …

... that there are some parts of the Sahara Desert on which rain never falls. Though clouds pass over these parts, and raindrops really fall, the water itself never reaches the ground. The heat of the desert air turns the raindrops, as they fall, back into vapour.

 

8. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What dangers face Britain's environment? 2. Does London control air pollution? 3. Why did hundreds of people die 30 years ago? 4. What can cause serious noise pollution? 5. Do Britain and France share oil pollution?

ВАРИАНТ 3

1. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Has the secretary come?

2. They hadn't yet loaded the goods when they received our telegram.

3. We have built hundreds of new houses in Ufa.

4. The ship has been unloaded.

5. The house will have been built by January.

6. The goods have just been examined by the customs.

 

2. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Не could speak English when he was a boy.

2. He may know her address.

3. You must consult a doctor.

4. They needn't have sent the telegram.

3. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессозное подчинение придаточных предложений.

1. The house they bought cost a great deal.

2. That was the most extraordinary thing I have ever seen.

3. I'm sure he will come if you call him.

4.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод повелительного наклонения.

1. Put the dictionary on the desk.

2. Do come to see us tonight.

3. Let them check the goods.

5. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие сложные предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения условия.

1. If she is here, she is probably working in the library.

2. If I were you, I would take your manager's advice.

3. If they were ecologists, they would do their best to protect the nature.

6.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая различные значения слов аs, since, for, too.

1. As I haven't read the book, I can't tell you anything about it.

2. Since then her health has never been restored.

3. There are too many mistakes in the documents.

4. The water was too cold for us to bathe.

7.Прочтите и устно переведите тексты. Переведите письменно предпоследний абзац текста Survival Code.

Survival Code

Concerned about pollution? Then start depolluting ... If you're thinking of buying a metal antipollution badge, don't! Metal badges are indestructible.

The world's water supply is limited. If too much water is used, it has to be recycled quickly - too quickly to be properly purified.

Cars are major polluters. Better for others if you walk or bike: better for you too.

Stop smoking! It hurts you and those around you.

Be critical of supersonic transport. (Remember there is such thing as noise pollution.) Is Concorde really necessary?

Fight litter and litterbugs. Next time you see someone drop a sweet-wrapper or an empty matchbox, pick it up and hand it back to him politely.

If you use only as much detergent as recommended by the manufacturer on the packet, pollution of rivers and lakes would drop by 40%.

Be container-conscious: if you can't destroy it, or give it back, don't buy it. What happens to non-returnable glass bottles? And what happens to PVC bottles (washing-up liquids, shampoos, etc.)? They can't be burnt, as PVC (polyvinil chloride) then gives off deadly hydrochloric acid.

Have you ever wondered why you're tired - even after a good night's sleep? The chances are that though you weren't disturbed by noise in the night, your dreams were and this, doctors say, is harmful. Keep your radio and record player turned down at night and maybe your neighbours will follow your example.

These are just a few ideas on how to survive. How many more can you think of?

Do You Know ...

... that grey snow fell in Japan, and black snow fell in France? We say "as white as snow", but on January 31, 1925, the Japanese, and on October 6, 1926, the French laughed, repeating this expression. For on the first date, snow fell in Japan and it was grey; and on the second date, snow fell in France and it was black!

The Japanese scientists explained that the event was due to mixture of snow and ashes from nearby volcanoes.

The French, however, could not offer any explanation. They just looked at the snow and shrugged their shoulders.

Believe It or Not

A snowstorm in August? No, it was raining mashed potato. Yes, truly! In August 1973 King's Lynn Norfolk was hit by what people thought was a freak snowstorm until they discovered the flakes didn't melt. A machine in a local factory making instant potato had gone wrong. Fifty tons of instant potato had gone up in the air: then it rained, and the moisture brought the potato down, turned back into mashed potato!

Shower?

Have you ever heard of it raining diamonds? It sounds impossible. Nevertheless a shower of diamonds fell from the sky and dropped in Western Australia a few years ago.

"Shower" is perhaps the wrong word, for the diamonds didn't fall separately. They came firmly embedded in a large, solid chunk of rock but they were diamonds all right, and exactly similar to those found in diamond mines on earth. But the most curious thing about them is that they didn't come from another planet, but were actually made in outer space! A meteorite travelling at terrific speed on its way to earth collided with some other body, and the tremendous pressure that followed turned the carbon in it to diamonds!

8. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. Is the world's water supply limited? 2. What happened in Japan on January 31, 1925? 3. How did the Japanese scientists explain the phenomenon? 4. Could the French scientists explain the phenomenon? 5. Where did the shower of diamonds fall?

 

ВАРИАНТ 4

1. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. I have found the book for which I was looking.

2. Mr. Petrov has been appointed chief engineer of our plant.

3. What English books have you read this term?

4. A great number of new shops will have been opened in the town by the end of the year.

5. After she had tried all the keys, she finally found the right one.

6. The manager returned before the typist had typed all the letters.

 

2. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Не said that he could ship the goods in April.

2. I may come and see you next summer, but my plans are not fixed.

3. They must have missed the train.

4. You shouldn't smoke so much.

 

3. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение придаточных предложений.

1. This is the worst car I ever had.

2. The man you told me about called in the morning.

3. I'm sure the doctor won't advise you to go to the South in July.

 

4. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод повелительного наклонения.

1. Let her open the door.

2. Don't touch this plug!

3. Fetch me a book, won't you?

5.Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие сложные предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения условия.

1. I shall be very grateful to you if you can spare me a few minutes.

2. It wouldn't have happened if you had been there. 3. If this watch were smaller, I should buy it.

 

6. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая различные значения слов as, since, for, too.

l. I'll do it as you told me.

2. I have been thinking of your decision since we parted.

3. He drank some of the wine and ate several chunks of bread while he was waiting for his dinner to come up.

4. He plays the piano, and he sings, too.

7. Прочтите и устно переведите тексты. Переведите письменно последний абзац текста Fancy That!

Pollution

The British, like many other Europeans are becoming more and more worried about their environment. Here are some of the environmental problems we face:

As the population of large cities like London, Birmingham and Manchester continues to grow, the pollution problems get worse.

The air in many towns and cities has been polluted by traffic and industry. Water pollution has been a serious problem in many British rivers.

High-rise blocks become prisons for the people who live in them.

We waste a great deal of valuable material. Paper, glass, metal and plastic can all be recycled.

The number of cars and lorries is growing all the time. They need bigger, better and more expensive roads, which often ruin the countryside. Traffic in our cities is getting worse and worse.

Fancy That!

It may not rain pennies from heaven, but it has been known to rain red sand!

You've heard the expression "raining cats and dogs", but do you know it actually does rain cats in Ypres, in Belgium? This happens once a year when the inhabitants celebrate the "procession of the cats". After the procession, a shower of cats is released from the top of the belfry upon the people in the marketplace below!

But cat-lovers will be relieved to know that the cats nowadays are made of velvet, although in the old days real live cats were used!

Ever heard of "red rain"? Tales banded down from the Middle Ages told of various occasions when it "rained blood", but these were generally dismissed as "old wives' tales", until in 1901, showers of red-coloured rain fell in Italy and Vienna! A year later the same thing happened in Cornwall. Two years later, red rain fell over the whole of the South of England!

But there was a simple explanation. It was all caused by a red-coloured sand which had been carried up into the clouds by cyclones over the Sahara desert, and then deposited by ordinary rainfall when the clouds passed over other continents. It's Interesting To Know

... that it sometimes rains frogs. Scientists explain the fact in this way. Spawn are sucked up from rivers and lakes into the atmosphere by whirlwinds. The embryos which are very light, are carried through the air for great distances. The spawn hatch on the way and the frogs drop onto the earth.

Do You Know ...

... if it is harmful for us to drink rain water.

All the water we drink is rain water. All drinking water has at one time been rain water. The difference between rain water directly collected in cisterns and rain water from springs and wells is mainly a difference in the quantity of mineral salts in it. Rain water directly collected contains almost no mineral salts, while rain that has been in contact with earth contains mineral salts.

Therefore the answer is that it is not harmful to drink rain water though it is more pleasant to drink water which contains mineral salts.

 

8. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. Do the British worry about their environment? 2. What materials can be recycled? 3. Is it harmful to drink rain water? 4. Does rain water contain mineral salts? 5. Is it more pleasant to drink water with mineral salts?

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА N 4

1. Причастие I. Причастие II.

2. Зависимый причастный оборот. Независимый причастный оборот.

3. Герундий. Герундиальный оборот.

4. Инфинитив.

5. Субъектный инфинитивный оборот. Объектный инфинитивный оборот.

6. Многозначность like, both, only.

Вариант 1

1. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в них Причастие I и Причастие II, установите функцию каждого причастия, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого.

1. Turning the handle cautiously he looked out.

2. She looked at the boys playing in the yard.

3. The discovery made by him is of great importance.

4. When changed, the article was published.

 

2. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них зависимый или независимый причастный оборот. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Being a foreigner she couldn't get accustomed to it.

2. It being Sunday, the shops were closed.

3. The conference being over, he returned to the office.

 

3. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них герундий или герундиальный оборот, установите его функцию, т.е. укажите, является ли он подлежащим, частью сказуемого, дополнением, определением или обстоятельством. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Smoking is bad for you.

2. The art of dancing is an ancient one.

3. I hate getting up early.

4. She hurried home on hearing the news of his arrival.

5. We were against Mr. Bond's going to London.

6. We were told of Mr. Taylor arriving next week.

4. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них инфинитив, установите его функцию, т.е. укажите, является ли он подлежащим, частью сказуемого, дополнением, определением или обстоятельством. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. То say is to act.

2. I've got a lot of things to do.

3. I have never learnt to dance.

4. He is too young to understand it.

5. The first thing to do is to let them know.

 

5. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них субъектный или объектный инфинитивный оборот. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. We consider her to be a good singer.

2. I would like you to hurry them up.

3. He made me do this work.

4. She is known to speak three languages.

5. The experiment was considered to be dangerous.

6. The problem seems to be very complicated.

 

6. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные значения слов like (alike), both (both ... and), only (the only).

1. The rocket stands like a huge silver pencil.

2. We were like brothers now.

3. What pretty girls! And so very much like each other.

4. They are both alike.

5. Both Samarkand and Bukhara are the centres of Uzbek classical architecture.

6. I prefer grey colours only.

7. Being the only child in the family Mark was loved by everybody.

8. Both he and she realized it very well.

 

7. Прочтите и устно переведите текст. Переведите письменно второй абзац текста.

Alfred Nobel

- a Man of Contrasts Alfred Nobel, the great Swedish inventor and industrialist, was a man of many contrasts. He was the son of a bankrupt, but became a millionaire; a scientist with a love of literature, an industrialist who managed to remain an idealist. He made a fortune but lived a simple life, and although cheerful in company he was often sad in private. A lover of mankind, he never had a wife or family to love him; a patriotic son of his native land, he died alone on foreign soil. He invented a new explosive dynamite, to improve the peacetime industries of mining and road building, but saw it used as a weapon of war to kill and injure his fellow men. During his useful life he often felt he was useless: "Alfred Nobel," he once wrote of himself, "ought to have been put to death by a kind doctor as soon as, with a cry, he entered life." World-famous for his works he was never personally well known, for throughout his life he avoided publicity. "I do not see," he once said, "that I have deserved any fame and I have no taste for it," but since his death, his name has brought fame and glory to others.

He was born in Stockholm on October 21, 1833 but moved to Russia with his parents in 1842, where his father, Immanuel, made a strong position for himself in the engineering industry. Immanuel Nobel invented the landmine and made a lot of money from government orders for it during the Crimean War, but went bankrupt soon after. Most of the family returned to Sweden in 1859, where Alfred rejoined them in l863, beginning his own study of explosives in his father's laboratory. He had never been to school or university but had studied privately and by the time he was twenty was a skilful chemist and excellent linguist, speaking Swedish, Russian, German, French and English. Like his father, Alfred Nobel was imaginative and inventive, but he had better luck in business and showed more financial sense. He was quick to see industrial openings for his scientific inventions and built up over 80 companies in 20 different countries. Indeed his greatness lay in his outstanding ability to combine the qualities of an original scientist with those of a forward-looking industrialist.

But Nobel's main concern was never with making money or even with making scientific discoveries. Seldom happy, he was always searching for a meaning to life, and from his youth had taken a serious interest in literature and philosophy. Perhaps because, he could not find ordinary human love - he never married - he came to care deeply about the whole of mankind. He was always generous to the poor: "I'd rather take care of the stomachs of the living than the glory of the dead in the form of stone memorials," he once said. His greatest wish, however, was to see an end to wars, and thus peace between nations, and he spent much time and money working for this cause until his death in Italy in 1896. His famous will, in which he left money to provide prizes for outstanding work in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, Medicine, Literature and Peace, is a memorial to his interests and ideals. And so, the man who felt he should have died at birth is remembered and respected long after his death. .

 

8. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What did Nobel invent? 2. Was he personally well known in the world? 3. Where and when was he born? 4. Was Nobel's father an inventor too? 5. Where did Nobel die?

ВАРИАНТ 2

1. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в них Причастие I и Причастие II, установите функцию каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого.

1. Taking his seat, he looked at his watch.

2. Their room had two curtained windows looking over the street, a couch with cushions, an almost empty bookcase and some photo­graphs of the family standing on it.

3. When questioned closely, she said it was true that she hadn't seen her husband up and about lately.

4. And each answer made was written down quickly upon the sheets of paper.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них зависимый или независимый причастный оборот. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Having put the check into my pocket, I started for the door.

2. It being chilly, we thought it wiser to stay in.

3. He came forward to meet me hands outstretched, a sunny smile lighting up his face.

3. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них герундий или герундиальный оборот, установите его функцию, т.е. укажите, является ли он подлежащим, частью сказуемого, дополнением, определением или обстоятельством. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Keeping his secret won't do any harm.

2. All I want is getting to the truth.

3. He did not like the idea of her staying with her father's people in Capetown.

4. He was aware of Jack's watching him attentively.

5. She smiled without showing her teeth.

6. It was some time before I remembered having met him on the Liston plane.

 

4. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них инфинитив, установите его функцию, т.е. укажите, является ли он подлежащим, частью сказуемого, дополнением, определением или обстоятельством. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. То hear him talk is an education in itself.

2. Our task is to master English.

3. The Farrells like to tell jokes.

4. You see I have no time to waste.

5. I arrived on a Saturday afternoon to spend a week there.

 

5. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них субъектный или объектный инфинитивный оборот. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. There's some information I want you to obtain.

2. He liked to see them work.

3. I have never heard him speak of his boyhood.

4. He was seen to cross the street and turn round the corner.

5. He is said to be one of the best students at our faculty.

6. He seemed to know her thoughts.

 

6. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные значения слов like (alike), both (both ... and), only (the only).

1. We were more like brothers than father and son.

2. He had a stubborn desire for his own way which the Committee did not like.

3. They both laughed and Dan looked down at his desk.

4. The chief is much pleased with your report, only he doesn't want to show it.

5. The only piece of furniture worthy of note was a large grand­father chair standing in front of the fireplace.

6. She both sings and dances.

7. He acts like a millionaire.

8. The brothers were very much alike.

7. Прочтите и устно переведите текст. Переведите письменно восьмой абзац текста.

Ernest Rutherford

Ernest Rutherford was born on August 30, 1871, in South Island, New Zealand, in the family of English settlers.

In 1861 gold was found in New Zealand and many foreigners came to live there. Industry began to develop, the country began to increase its export.

Ernest's father earned his living by bridge-building and other construction work required in the country at that time. At the same time he carried on small-scale farming.

When James Rutherford, the father of the future great scientist, was 26 he became friends with Miss Tompson, a teacher of an English school. The young people fell in love and in 1866 they married.

Little Ernest was the fourth child in the family. When the boy was five he was sent to primary school. He was one of the best pupils there. After finishing primary school he went to the secondary school. He liked to read at school very much. His favourite writer was Charles Dickens. He made models of different machines. Especially he was interested in watches and cameras. He liked to take photos and constructed a camera himself. At "Nelson College" (that was the name of the school) Ernest distinguished himself in physics, mathematics, English, French and Latin. He became the best pupil at school. He paid much attention to chemistry, too. Chemistry was not obligatory but Rutherford was the only pupil to study chemistry at Nelson College. At the age of 19 he finished school and entered the only New Zealand University, called Canterbury College. The University was founded in 1870. When Rutherford entered the University there were only 150 students and 7 professors there. At the University Ernest Rutherford was one of the most talented students. He studied much but took an active part in sport competitions. He also took an active part in the work of the Scientific Society at the University. At one of the meetings of this Society he made his scientific report "The Evolution of Elements". At the same time he began his research work. For his talented scientific research work he got a prize. Later Rutherford went to Cambridge where he continued his researches.

About ten years Ernest Rutherford lived and worked in Canada. There he occupied a research chair in physics at the University in Montreal. Then he lectured in leading Universities in the United States and England, from 1907 till 1919. He worked at the University of Manchester.

Rutherford's famous work is "The Scattering of Alpha and Beta Particles of Matter and the Structure of the Atom." The book deals with so-called "atom models", according to which the atom is pictured as composed of a central charge surrounded by a sphere of electrification of equal but opposite charge.

The atom had always been regarded as the smallest indivisible units of which matter was composed. Further research showed that the atom was made up of smaller parts and that its structure was very complex. It resembled the solar system, with a central nucleus and a number of electrons very much smaller than the nucleus and revolving around it. It was shown by Rutherford that the atom could be bombarded so that the electrons could be thrown off, and the nucleus itself could be broken in the process of splitting the nucleus, matter was converted into energy which for the scientists of the 19th century seemed to be impossible.

The splitting of the atom has opened to man a new and enormous source of energy. The most important results have been obtained by splitting the atom of uranium.

At present we are only at the beginning of the application of atomic energy and all its possible uses for peaceful purposes in power engineering, medicine and agriculture.

Ernest Rutherford paid much attention to his young pupils. After 1920 he did not make great discoveries in science but taught young scientists in the field of atomic research work.

The great scientist died in the autumn of 1937 after an operation at a Cambridge hospital. He was 66.

Many people took part in the funeral. There were great scientists and friends there, many of his students who loved their teacher and honoured him.

Ernest Rutherford was buried at Westminster Abbey not far from the graves of Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin and Michael Faraday.

8. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. In what subjects did Ernest Rutherford distinguish himself at school? 2. Was he interested only in studies at the University? 3. Did he get a prize for his research work? 4. What has the splitting of the atom opened to man? 5. Did Ernest Rutherford make great discoveries in science after 1920?

 

ВАРИАНТ 3

1. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в них Причастие I и Причастие II, установите функцию каждого причастия, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого.

1. Hearing this I decided to go to the house at once.

2. She tried to calm the crying child.

3. I read the note written in French.

4. When shown the letter she confessed everything.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них зависимый или независимый причастный оборот. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Coming up to the door I found it locked.

2. All preparations being made, the party sat down.

3. There being a lot of things to discuss, the conference lasted long.

 

3. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них герундий или герундиальный оборот, установите его функцию, т.е. укажите является ли он подлежащим, частью сказуемого, дополнением, определением или обстоятельством. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. His hobby is collecting stamps.

2. The child had no difficulty in solving the puzzle.

3. I prefer riding to walking.

4. She walked quickly without looking back.

5. We insist on John's making a report.

6. Do you mind our being present?

 

4. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них инфинитив, установите его функцию, т.е. укажите, является ли он подлежащим, частью сказуемого, дополнением, определением или обстоятельством. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. То live in a world without fear is the goal of progressive mankind.

2. I've got a call to make.

3. I want to study French.

4. Her dream is to become an actress.

5. She is clever enough not to mention it.

5. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них субъектный или объектный инфинитивный оборот. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. The driver wanted the car to be filled up.

2. What makes you suspect him?

3. We expect him to arrive tomorrow.

4. The girl was seen to dance.

5. He is considered to be a good teacher.

6. Peter is certain to do this work.

 

6. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные значения слов like (alike), both (both ... and), only (the only).

1. The tea tastes like coffee.

2. Boris is very much like his brother.

3. Snow falls like feathers.

4. They are dressed alike too.

5. Both streets and houses were white with snow.

6. Both friends felt happy at seeing each other.

7. Only Mr. Taylor and Mr. Fox were at Petrov's place for the first time.

8. I quite unexpectedly realized that it was the only way out.

 

7. Прочтите и устно переведите текст. Переведите письменно первый абзац текста.

The Legend of Madame Sklodowska-Curie

Let us inquire into the question why the legend of Madame Curie was created and why it spread throughout the world. Her legend is, and will be one of the factors which will play its role in the creation of a new post-war civilization. We all know that she was first to discover that the minerals containing uranium or thorium are more radioactive than pure uranium and thorium. This was the turning point in the discovery of radium. At that moment Pierre Curie postponed his own investigations on the physics of crystals and joined his wife in her effort to find those more active unknown chemical elements. To appreciate properly the development which followed, it should be borne in mind that both Pierre and Marie Curie were convinced that the new element radium, and to some extent polonium, had their definite places in the Mendeleyev System.

It is known to a restricted number of specialists that Madame Curie gave the real basis for the industrial methods of radium manufacture. She established the methods of separating radium and other elements from the pitchblende and from other minerals. She also used other methods according to the chemical character of
radioactive elements.

The significance of these investigations is less known, only because she refused to protect her rights for the method of radium manufacture, as she wished to serve the people of the whole world.

An attempt of publishing a list of papers and books written by Mme Marie Curie-Sklodowska is, unfortunately, a difficult task.

The first publications of her work appeared at the time the method of registering scientific papers was far less precise than it is today. Scientific journals did not bother to give exact initials of the author's name. Even the year of publication and the name of the journal in which the paper was published were totally ignored. This lack of uniformity in the abstracts of Madame Curie's papers was caused also by another factor. Insisting as she often did on stressing the point of her Polish birth, Mme Curie used to include in her signatures also her maiden name, Sklodowska. Obviously it resulted in some confusion.

After the tragic death of Pierre Curie, however, Madame Curie used practically without exception the name Pierre Curie. From time to time, however, she added her maiden name too, as if to remind the reader that she was a Pole by birth. A great many works of Mme Curie have been translated into English and other languages.

In October 1929 Mme Curie arrived in the United States for the second time. Another gram of radium was offered to her which she gave to the Sklodowska-Curie Radium Institute in Warsaw. Madame Curie visited Poland twice after the First World War. Her visit was connected with the dedication ceremonies at the Sklodowska-Curie Radium Institute with its Hospital in Warsaw.

Madame Sklodowska-Curie (1867-1934), the leading woman scientist, the greatest woman of her generation, was the first person to receive a Nobel Prize twice.

8. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What element did Curie discover? 2. What was Marie's nationality? 3. Did Pierre die tragically? 4. When did Mme Curie arrive to the United States for the second time? 5. How many times did Marie receive a Nobel Prize?

ВАРИАНТ 4

1. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в них Причастие I и Причастие II, установите функцию каждого причастия, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого.

1. Being of a nervous temperament she trembled at seeing her child.

2. It was pleasant to look at the rising sun.

3. They were playing watched by the nurse.

4. If changed the article will be published.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них зависимый или независимый причастный оборот. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Having lived in the country for many years he spoke English without a foreign accent.

2. The weather being fine, the airplane started.

3. England being a constitutional monarchy, the Queen of England is only a formal ruler.

3. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них герундий или герундиальный оборот, установите его функцию, т.е. укажите, является ли он подлежащим, частью сказуемого, дополнением, определением или обстоятельством. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Walking fast is good exercise.

2. We didn't like the idea of inviting Robertsons.

3. He finished reading.

4. Before crossing the road stop and look both ways.

5. We know of the earth behaving as a large magnet!

6. They object to our leaving so soon.

4. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них инфинитив, установите его функцию, т.е. укажите, является ли он подлежащим, частью сказуемого, дополнением, определением или обстоятельством. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. То learn everything by heart is impossible.

2. Tell me how to do it.

3. There is a house to let.

4. To hesitate is to lose.

5. He came to ask after her health.

5. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них субъектный или объектный инфинитивный оборот. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Do you really wish him to come?

2. I saw him come here.

3. I often hear children play in the yard.

4. All bodies are known to possess weight.

5. He is sure to come.

6. English is known to have adopted a lot of French words.

6. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные значения слов like (alike), both (both ... and), only (the only).

1. The nerves of pilots must be like steel.

2. I wish I could do it like you.

3. She is treated like a tender plant.

4. They are as alike as two drops of milk.

5. Both builders and architects are trying to make new houses comfortable to live in.

6. You are both mistaken taking me for Mr. Roger.

7. Only you are to blame for it.

8. The only thing to do was to leave this place immediately.

 

7. Прочтите и устно переведите тексты. Переведите письменно четвертый абзац текста Thomas Alva Edison.

Anders Celsius

Anders Celsius, a founder of Swedish astronomy who was from a family of noted scholars, possessed a variety of other scientific interests and skills. He was born on November 27, 1701, in the old Swedish city of Uppsala, 40 miles northwest of Stockholm. His interests in the earth, sea, and sky developed early. Before he was 20, he was making definite observations of the northern lights. At 29 he became professor of astronomy at the University of Uppsala where his grandfather and father had taught.

Celsius inspired and carried out construction of an astronomical observatory, of which he became director, at the University. Then, in 1740, he began his work of greatest scientific value: systematic measurement of the brightness of various stars by use of photonutric devices which had been recently developed.

Never content to concentrate his energy on a single effort, he made, in 1742, the announcement for which he is now remembered.

As early as 1585 the Dutch mathematician Simon Stevinus had proposed that all nations use the decimal system which he had devised. Almost a century later Gabriel Mouton of France urged adoption of a system of weights and measures with a decimal bаsе. It was not unitl 1791 that the French National Аssembly took the first official step, but the idea was germinating in mid-century and Celsius investigated the desirability of applying decimals to the measurement of heat.

In 1701 Newton had suggested that the basic scale should range from the freezing point of water to the temperature of the human body. Then a German who had spent many years in Holland, Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, mixed salt with ice to lower Newton's zero.

A few years later, a Frenchman, Rene Antoine de Reaumur, called for a scale with 80 degrees between the freezing and boiling points of water.

When it appeared that the measurement of heat was rapidly getting out of hand, Celsius prepared a paper "On the Measurement of Heat" which he read to the Swedish Academy of Science. Celsius's monograph proposed a thermometer scale based on decimals Instead of de Reaumur's 80 or Fahrenheit's 180 degrees.

Thomas Alva Edison

He was born February 11, 1847, in Milan, Ohio, and worked as newsboy and "candy butcher" on a train when he was 12. When he was 15 he rescued a child from the path of a speeding train. The father, in gratitude, taught him how to be a telegraph operator. He landed in New York at 22, penniless.

We think of him as the inventor of the electric light, but how much more he Improved and made possible!

The catalogue of his inventions still strains belief. He was granted 1,093 patents in the USA alone and two to three thousand more in foreign countries. Foundations and government agencies spent little or nothing on research, so Edison thought four or five hours of sleep, enough for anyone and often worked 40 to 50 hours, napping in his laboratory.

His deafness ("I have not heard a bird sing since I was 12") intensified an astounding capacity for concentration. His wife said that when absorbed in a problem, he lived "in the highest state of exhilaration, seeing nothing and thinking nothing ... except what was a vital bearing of his task." He filled 2,500 notebooks with research ideas and records.

He loved Shakespeare and Tom Paine and had over 10,000 volumes in his home. He seemed incapable of despair. Searching for a domestic source of rubber he tested 17,000 different plants in four years. After 8,000 unsuccessful trials on a storage battery, he remarked: "Well, at least we know 8,000 things that don't work."

His passion for experiments, his imaginative conception of novel combinations, his ability to find fresh ways of solving old problems, to follow intuition - these are surely part of scientific endeavour, though he always used to say: "I am not a scientist, I am an inventor."

Perhaps one of the greatest of Edison's inventions was organized research itself. His laboratory in Menlo Park, N.Y-(1876) was the first to put researchers of different skills to work as a team on new problems.

Thomas Alva Edison died in 1931, at 84, leaving cities around the globe diademed by light.

8. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. When was Celsius born? 2. Was he director of an astro­nomical observatory? 3. When and where was Edison born? 4. What jobs did he have? 5. Who was his favourite writer?


Поделиться:

Дата добавления: 2015-09-13; просмотров: 88; Мы поможем в написании вашей работы!; Нарушение авторских прав





lektsii.com - Лекции.Ком - 2014-2024 год. (0.009 сек.) Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав
Главная страница Случайная страница Контакты