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IV. Define the key sentences of the text.

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  1. After studying the definitions above, use these new words in the sentences below.
  2. After studying the definitions above, use these new words in the sentences below.
  3. After studying the definitions above, use these new words in the sentences below.
  4. Change these sentences by changing certain adjectives into verbs.
  5. E) Some expressions are underlined in the text. Try to explain how you understand them.
  6. E) Some expressions are underlined in the text. Try to explain how you understand them.
  7. Ex 14 Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech following the examples. Notice the changes in the pronouns.
  8. Ex.16: Complete the sentences withthan orto.
  9. Give English equivalents to the following words and word combinations using the text.
  10. II. Read and translate the text.

V. Interpret the following in English:

§ the entire course of human events;

§ inevitable process;

§ cyclical theory;

§ overwhelming evidence;

§ the nature of history;

§ to add fictitious details;

§ to confirm the basic accuracy of Herodotus’ writing;

§ detailed narrative;

§ annals;

§ to show the hand of God in historical events;

§ members of the clergy;

§ to concentrate more on the human view of events and less on the divine aspect;

§ to have significant impact


VI. Arrange the following in pairs of synonyms:

to confirm to examine
to regard to lead
to repeat to prevail
to direct to support
to argue to introduce
to assume to demand
to investigate to recur
to dominate to give reasons
to question to consider
to present to reject
to turn away to suppose
to doom to formulate
to devise to condemn


VII. Error correction. Define false statements and give their right versions:

v The Ancient Greeks regarded history as a series of events with a beginning and an end.

v Cyclical theory dominated nearly all the history written in Europe during the Middle Ages.

v During the early 1900’s philosophers developed the concept of history as a process of inevitable progress.

v Philosopher Oswald Spender compared human civilizations with organisms, which go through a cycle of birth, development, and death.

v Most modern philosophers turn away from theories, that history has meaning and purpose, but they examine the nature of history and the method of explanation.

v The world’s oldest written history comes from the Ancient East.

v Herodotus strove to write critically and accurately.

v During the 300’s, only the members of the clergy tried to write a universal history by combining Jewish and Christian history with the record of the Greek and Roman past.

v During the 1800’s history became a recognized academic field.

v Gibbon formulated the basic methods used by modern historians to analyze and evaluate documents.

VIII. Answer the questions trying not to give a one-word answer, add some information to develop the idea:

1. What do theories of history try to explain?

2. Explain the difference between regarding history by ancient Greeks and Christian theology.

3. How do modern historians regard history?

4. Who argued that Western civilization is already doomed?

5. Why have most modern philosophers turned away from theories of history?

6. Where can we find the oldest written historical sources?

7. Can we consider the history of Herodotus a precise account of human events?

8. What ancient Romans historians do you know?

9. What were the most part of Medieval historians interested in?

10. What idea was introduced by Eusebius? How did Saint Augustine use it?

11. When did history become an academic field? Why?

12. Is it enough for historian to study only course of events?


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