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XII. Render the text close to its original variant. XIII*. Use the sources available to find some additional information on the issue




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  4. X. Render the text close to its original variant.
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  6. XII. Render the text close to its original variant.
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  8. XII. Render the text close to its original variant.
  9. XII. Render the text close to its original variant.

 

XIII*. Use the sources available to find some additional information on the issue. Present your reports in class.

 

Unit V

 

 

I. Look through the words and expressions and learn them:

Ø to purport – означати/мати за мету/претендувати;

Ø to draw upon – залучати/використовувати;

Ø insights – розуміння/усвідомлення;

Ø to review newly discovered sources – переглядати нові знайдені джерела;

Ø recent scholarship – нещодавні відкриття;

Ø to call upon – бути вимушеним/відчувати потребу;

Ø to furnish with a lineage – надавати докази про походження роду;

Ø incompatible with – несумісний з;

Ø to be based on presumed neutral analysis – засновуватися на імовірно безсторонньому аналізі;

Ø notoriously biased toward smth. – сумно звісно упереджений щодо;

Ø at the expense of – за рахунок;

Ø freelance consultants – нештатний консультант;

Ø buff – любитель/аматор

II. Read and translate the text:

 

HISTORYCAL ANALYSIS

 

What does a good historian need to have? The process of historical analysis is a difficult one, involving investigation and analysis of competing ideas, facts and purported facts to create coherent narratives that explain "what happened" and "why or how it happened". Modern historical analysis usually draws upon most of the other social sciences, including economics, sociology, politics, psychology, anthropology, philosophy and linguistics, in order to ensure that these narratives will start from the beginning of the world. These prefaces are usually of much less historical interest. While ancient writers do not normally share modern historical practices, their work remains valuable for its insights within the cultural context of the times.

An important part of the contribution of many modern historians is the verification or, as revisionist history, the dismissal of earlier historical accounts through reviewing newly discovered sources and recent scholarship or through parallel disciplines such as archaeology.

Although references are often made to the ancient writers such as Herodotus, the so-called father of history, or Tacitus as historians, their works do not meet the modern standards of impartiality and objectivity. Many of the historians of the past have been called upon to write histories either to furnish a king or a ruling class with a lineage, thereby offering it legitimacy, or to give a people a cultural heritage and sense of identity. This meant that the works of these historians openly mixed oratory, poetry and literature in a way which is incompatible with the contemporary concern for impartiality and objectivity. This does not necessarily devalue their work but does require that their efforts be considered within their cultural context.



Concerning Herodotus (5th century BC), one of the earliest nameable historians whose work survives, his recount of strange and unusual tales are gripping but not necessarily representative of the historical record. Despite this, The Histories of Herodotus displays some of the techniques of more modern historians. He interviewed witnesses, evaluated oral histories, studied multiple sources and then pronounced his particular version.

Herodotus's works covered what was then the entire known world of the Greeks, or at least the part regarded as worthy of study, i.e., the peoples surrounding the Mediterranean. At about the same time, Thucydides pioneered a different form of history, one much closer to reportage. In his work, History of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides wrote about a single long conflict with its origins and results. But, as it was mainly within living memory and Thucydides himself was alive at the time of many of the events, there was less room for myths and tall tales.



Much of the groundwork in creating the modern figure of the historian was done by Charles de Second, baron de Montesquieu (1689–1755). His wide-ranging Spirit of the Laws spanned legal, geographical, cultural, economic, political and philosophical studies and was greatly influential in forging the fundamentally interdisciplinary historian.

Referred to as "the first modern historian", Edward Gibbon wrote his grand opus The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. However, some authors such as Christiansen regard ancient Greek author Polybius as the first historian of a modern kind, criticizing sources and making unbiased judgments based on presumed neutral analysis; indeed, Livy used him as a source. Polybius, one of the first historians to attempt to present history as a sequence of causes and effects, carefully conducted his research – partly based on what he saw and partly on the communications of eye-witnesses and the participants in the events.

At the turn of the twentieth century, Western history remained notoriously biased toward the so-called "Great Men" school of history concerning wars, diplomacy, science and politics. This point of view was inherently predisposed toward the study of a small number of powerful men within the socio-economic elite.



A pronounced shift away from crude Whiggish analyses has started, in favour of a more critical and precise perspective. For example, a common myth is that Thomas Edison invented the electric light bulb; a traditional American history might highlight Edison's story at the expense of all others. In contrast, a modern history of Edison mentions all his predecessors and competitors, in order to show that Edison's real accomplishments were in concert with the successful commercial deployment of technology (in tandem with inventor Joseph Swann, hence the Edi-Swann company).

Since the 1960s, history as an academic discipline has undergone several evolutions. These changes fostered advances in a number of areas previously unrecognized in historiography. Formerly neglected topics have become the subject of academic study, such as the history of popular culture, mass culture, sexuality, geographical culture and the lives of ordinary people.

Historians also started investigating the histories of ideas surrounding various categories of people, such as women's studies (including an entire branch of women's history), racial minorities (like African-American history) or disabled people (e.g., an historian's study of the construction of ideas about disabled people and the results thereof, perhaps in a specific historical setting, such as Nazi Germany).

Today, many historians are employed at universities and other facilities for post-secondary education. In addition, it is common, although not required, for many historians to have a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree in their chosen areas of study. During the preparation of their thesis for this degree, many develop into their first book, since regular publishing activities are essential for advancement in academia. There is currently a great deal of controversy among academic historians regarding the possibility and desirability of the neutrality in historical scholarship.

The job market for graduate historians is relatively limited. Historians typically work in libraries, universities, archival centres, government agencies (particularly heritage) and as freelance consultants. Many with a history degree also may become involved with administrative or clerical professions and a history degree is often used as a "stepping stone" to further studies such as a law degree.

The term "buff" is sometimes used to describe an historian, such as stating that a historian of the Second World War is a "World War II Buff". This term is normally regarded as somewhat insulting to professional historians, since "buffs" are those typically who study history as a minor hobby and do not have the same training and background of a professional historian who has received college level academic training in a given field.

There is also the related expansion in the popularity of history as a subject for television programmes, which has led to the growth of "super historians" known variously as "super dons" or "celebrity dons", who can present their own views to a wider audience.

 

III. Study the given below lexical units (provide Ukrainian variant):

  to share modern historical practices  
  the verification  
the dismissal of earlier historical accounts  
to give a cultural heritage and sense of identity  
  to devalue smb’s work  
  to display some of the techniques  
  to be inherently predisposed toward  
  to be in concern with  
  to foster advances  

IV. Find English equivalents for the following:

· в межах культурного контексту часу;

· історія, що потребує перегляду;

· сучасні норми неупередженості та об’єктивності;

· надавати великого значення;

· зазнавати декількох змін;

· теми, які раніше ігнорувалися;

· багато суперечок;

· можливість та бажаність нейтралітету в історичній науці

V. Interpret the following in English:

§ analysis of competing ideas, facts;

§ to create coherent narratives;

§ revisionist history;

§ to pioneer a different form of history;

§ to make unbiased judgments;

§ to span different studies;

§ a sequence of causes and effects;

§ a great deal of controversy;

§ "Great Men" school of history;

§ a "stepping stone"

VI. – Find the following adjectives and nouns in the text (column A and column B):

A B
славетний ідеї
чіткий факти
непродуманий успіх
означені історик
суперечні зростання
суттєвий виклад подій
історичне аналіз
відносне оточення

– Match the lexis in columns A and B.

– Use the expressions in your own sentences or in the statements from the text.

VII. Find synonyms in the text for the following words and word combinations:

  research     variant  
  to guarantee     to encompass  
  useful     opinion  
  inheritance     to try  
  notable     at the beginning of  
  opportunity     a large number  
  narratives   forerunner and opponent  
  various     a present area  

 


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