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X. Render the text close to its original variant. XI. Translate the following passage in written form; entitle it; put 5 questions (of different types):

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  3. Task 44. Read the text and render its contents in Russian without using a dictionary.
  4. X. Render the text close to its original variant.
  5. XII. Render the text close to its original variant.
  6. XII. Render the text close to its original variant.
  7. XII. Render the text close to its original variant.
  8. XII. Render the text close to its original variant.
  9. XII. Render the text close to its original variant.

XI. Translate the following passage in written form; entitle it; put 5 questions (of different types):


The "father of history" has generally been acclaimed as Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484 BC – 425 BC). However, it is his contemporary Thucydides (ca. 460 BC – 400 BC) who is credited with having begun the scientific approach to history in his work the History of the Peloponnesian War. Thucydides, unlike Herodotus and other historians, regarded history as being the product of the choices and actions of human beings, and looked at cause and effect, rather than as the result of divine intervention. In his historical method, Thucydides emphasized chronology, a neutral point of view, and that the human world was the result of the actions of human beings. Greek historians also viewed history as cyclical, with events regularly reoccurring.

Outside of Europe, there were historical traditions and sophisticated use of historical method in ancient and medieval China. The groundwork for professional historiography in East Asia was established by the Han Dynasty court historian known as Sima Qian (145–90 BC), author of the Shiji (Records of the Grand Historian). For the quality of his written work, Sima Qian is known as the “Father of Chinese Historiography”. Chinese historians of subsequent dynastic periods in China used his work as the official format for historical texts, as well as for biographical literature.

Saint Augustine was influential in Christian and Western thought at the beginning of the Medieval period. Through the Medieval and Renaissance periods, history was often studied through a sacred or religious perspective. Around 1800, German philosopher and historian George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel brought philosophy and a more secular approach in historical study.

In the preface to his book the Muqaddimah, historian and early sociologist Ibn Khaldun warned of seven mistakes that he thought that historians regularly committed. In this criticism, he approached the past as strange and in need of interpretation. The originality of Ibn Khaldun was to claim that the cultural difference of another age must govern the evaluation of relevant historical material, to distinguish the principles according to which it might be possible to attempt the evaluation, and lastly, to feel the need for experience, in addition to rational principles, in order to assess a culture of the past.

Other historians of note who have advanced the historical methods of study include Leopold von Ranke, Lewis Bernstein Namier, Geoffrey Rudolph Elton, and Edward Gibbon. In the 20th century, historians focused less on nationalistic narratives, which often tended to glorify the nation or individuals, to more realistic chronologies. French historians introduced quantitative history, using broad data to track the lives of typical individuals, and were prominent in the establishment of cultural history. American historians, motivated by the civil rights era, focused on formerly overlooked ethnic, racial, and socio-economic groups. In recent years, postmodernists have challenged the validity and need for the study of history on the basis that all history is based on the personal interpretation of sources.

XII. Write an essay on the following topics:

1. The role of Greek historians in the development of historical theories.

2. The teachings of great Medieval thinkers and their role in the development of history.

3. Modern historians, their theories and teachings.



Unit IV



I. Look through the words and expressions and learn them:

Ø integrity – чистота/цілісність;

Ø evidential value of contents – доказова цінність змісту;

Ø credibility – правдоподібність/імовірність;

Ø a few basic steps – кілька основних етапів;

Ø a variety of source materials – велика кількість різноманітних джерел інформації;

Ø evaluating sources – оцінка джерел інформації

Ø to determine the reliability – визначати достовірність;

Ø a likely sequence of events – ймовірний перебіг подій;

Ø approach – підхід/метод;

Ø contemporaneous corroboration – сучасне підкріплення;

Ø revisionism – ревізіонізм


II. Read and translate the text:



The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and than to write history.

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