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Summary and Annotation

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The reading of original literature is crucial to get the latest information. Summary (abstract, precis) and annotation have become important forms of such information providing. These forms can essentially reduce the specialists' time of information (data) processing.

Summary is a short written account of something , which gives the important points but not the details. It is usually opens an article or a report. It can be considered as a shortened version of an original. The summary is expected to be about a sixth or a tenths of the original in length. It is usually far easier to write it after you have read the original. First go through it lifting out important information, findings, conclusions and recommendations. It is necessary to avoid including excessive background and detail. Sometimes the summary may take a spoken form. To prepare a summary you should:

1. Study the work carefully;

2. Make definite opinion of what has been read;

3. Develop the appropriate style of writing;

4. Communicate accurately the author's conclusions;

5. Write briefly and clearly.

Annotation is the extremely brief account of the main contents like the list of major problems. If the purpose of summary is to get the reader acquainted with the main contents of the original and the substitute it to some degree, the annotation considers only the article's or the book's topic and facilitates search of necessary information on the subject. To make annotation, you should do the following:

1. Write down the name of the original (article or book) in English.

2. Translate this into Russian.

3. Write down the publishing data of the article (book).

4. Resume briefly (in 3—6 sentences) the contents of the original. The following phrases normally open summaries and annotations: The article is concerned with . . .

This work deals with . . . This work is devoted to . . .

Mention was made of the new achievements in the field of. .. Special emphasis is laid on . . .


Particular attention is given to . . .

Notice has been taken to . . .

It is known (thought) that. . .

A new method (approach) has been proposed. . .

The author comes to the conclusions . . .

The work is of primary interest (importance, value) for. . .

One manager who had trouble summarizing a lengthy report discovered a helpful technique. He imagined that he and his boss got on the elevator on the 35th floor and rode down to the lobby. His boss remarked, "I just got your report on the new sales incentive plan. What's it all about?" The manager would — in the time it takes an elevator to descend 35 floors — give his boss the rationale, findings, and recommendations of the report.

Depending on how tall your building is — or how fast or slow the elevators are — you may want to try this technique to help you frame your summary.

II. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What is a definition of a summary?

2. Is it difficult to write summaries?

3. What phrases are typical for a summary or an annotation opening?

4. What technique can be proposed for making an annotation?

5. How long can it take you to write a summary?

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