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Exercises. I.Answer the following questions.

I.Answer the following questions.

1.What is a tax?

2.What does a state require money for?

3.What effect does excessive direct taxation have on people?

4.What is the national debt?

5.Give two examples of direct taxes.

II.Find in the text synonyms to the following words.

1. Obligatory. 2. Different. 3. Attentive. 4. Extra. 5. Web

III.Match the words from A with the definitions fromB.


1. Debt. 2. Claim. 3. Wages. 4. Order. 5. Law. 6. Haising. 7. Defence. 8. Revenue.


1. The total annual income of a state.

2. A sum of money demanded for something done or lost.

3. Resistance against attack.

4. Payment made or received for work or services performed.

5. A condition brought about by a good and firm government.

6. Money that is owed

7. Dwellings provided for people.

8. Rules made by a government for the correct conduct of people in a country.

IV. Fill in the blanks with the derivatives of the word industry.

1.Employers value the qualities of honesty and _____ in their workers.

2.Government land is often leased to manufacturers for ______ use.

3.Employers dislike _____ disputes as they can lead to disruption of work.

4.Japanese workers are known to be _____.

Discussion on taxation

Part I

Mrs Smith Why do we have to pay taxes, dear?
Mr Smith The government needs the revenue for carrying out its work.
Mrs Smith Can’t it collect taxes from the rich?
Mr Smith That is being done but it’s not enough.
Mrs Smith What does the government do with the revenue?
Mr Smith It uses the revenue to administer the state.
Mrs Smith What are some of the services it provides?
Mr Smith It provides education, housing, health and welfare services
Mrs Smith Does it have other obligations?
Mr Smith Yes, in some countries it even subsidises farming.
Mrs Smith What kind of taxes do we pay?
Mr Smith We pay direct and indirect taxes.
Mrs Smith What is the difference between them?
Mr Smith We pay direct taxes on our income. We pay taxes on some goods indirectly, through higher prices.
Mrs Smith Can you quote an example?
Mr Smith Yes, for example, when we buy cigarettes, the price includes the customs duty the importer has paid to the government.
Mrs Smith Is this a good practice?
Mr Smith Yes, but should indirect taxes be too high workers may demand higher salaries.
Mrs Smith Then shouldn’t the government collect more direct taxes?
Mr Smith If they are excessive, people may not want to work hard or save.
Mrs Smith What’s the reason?
Mr Smith They may think that too much of their earnings is being taken by the government.
Mrs Smith What is the solution then?
Mr Smith The government should collect taxes in moderation.


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