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Reader’s Corner: THE SYSTEM OF LAW IN RUSSIA
If we desire respect for the law, we must first make the law respectable.
Ex.23. Skim the text to complete the following statements.
a) This text considers the. . .
b) It discusses...
c) It tells us what….
d) Each paragraph is about...
Law is a system of rules established by the state.
The main aim of law is to consolidate and safeguard the social and state system and its economic foundation.
One important distinction made in all countries is between private or civil law and public law. Civillaw concerns disputes among citizens within a country, and publiclaw concerns disputes between citizens and the state, or between one state and another.
The system of law in our country consists of different categories of law.
Constitutional law is a leading category of the whole system of law. Its principal source is the country's Constitution. It deals with social structure, the state system, organization of state power and the legal status of citizens.
Administrative law is closely connected with constitutional law but it deals with the legal forms of concrete executive and administrative activity of a government and ministries.
Criminal law defines the general principles of criminal responsibility, individual types of crimes and punishment applied to criminals. Crimes are wrongs which, even committed against an individual are considered to harm the well-being of society in general. Criminal law takes the form of a criminal code.
International law regulates relations between governments and also between private citizens of one country and those of another.
Financial law regulates the budget, taxation, state credit and other spheres of financial activity.
Civil law is connected with relations in the economic sphere of life, with relations involving property, its distribution and exchange. The right in property is the central institution of civil law.
The rules of employment law include the legislation on the employment of industrial and office workers and regulate matters arising from employment relations.
Ex.24. Scan the text in order to match these words and phrases with their definitions below.
Civil law, criminal law, administrative law, law, financial law, the rules of employment law, constitutional law.
a) ... is a system of rules established by the state.
b) ... is a leading category of the whole system of law.
c) ... deals with the legal forms of concrete executive and administrative activity of a government and ministries.
d) ... regulates the budget, taxation, state credit . . .
e) ... is connected with relations involving property. . .
f) ... include the legislation on the labour of industrial and office workers. . .
g) ... defines the general principles of criminal responsibility.
Ex.25. Read the text in detail to find the answers to the 10 “What"-questions below.
1. What is law?
2. What is the main aim of law?
3. What categories of law does the system of law in Russia consist of?
4. What is the principle source of constitutional law?
5. What category of law is closely connected with constitutional law?
6. What is the central institution of civil law?
7. What does criminal law define?
8. What form does criminal law take?
9. What is civil law connected with?
10. What rules does employment law include?
Ex.26. Word study.
A. Find in the text adjectives related to these nouns:
B. Find in the text nouns related to these verbs:
to relate to found
to organize to distribute
Ex.27. Match these words and phrases with their Russian equivalents.
a) to establish a system 1. рабочие (служащие)
b) a category (of law) 2. принимать вид кодекса
c) the principle source of law 3. применять наказание
d) to deal with 4. основной источник права
e) the right in property 5. отрасль (права)
f) rule of law 6. право на имущество
g) industrial (office) workers 7. иметь дело с, заниматься
h) to arise from 8. основная (специальная) часть
i) individual types of crimes 9. устанавливать систему
j) to apply punishment 10. возникать из
k) to take the form of a code 11. индивидуальные виды преступлений
l) a general (special) part 12. норма права
Ex.28. Read the text and complete the following tasks.
a) Translate the Russian words in the text from Russian into English.
Choose from: regulates, rules, dutiable, collect, to issue, forbidden, restricted, terms, goods and vehicles,' levying, law.
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