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Reader’s Corner : THE STATE SYSTEM OF RUSSIA
Russia is a democratic federative law-governed state with a republican form of government. The population of Russia is about 150 million people and the territory is 6.6 million square miles. The Russian Federation consists of 89 constituent entities (republics, krays, oblasts, cities of federal significance, an autonomous oblasts and autonomous okrugs, which have equal rights). The authorities of the constituent entities have the right to pass laws independently from the federal government. These laws are valid on the territory of the appropriate federate division, but they cannot contradict the federal laws. In case of conflicts between federal and local authorities, the President uses consensual procedures to resolve the problem. In the event a consensus is not reached, the dispute is transferred to the appropriate court for its resolution. The Russian President has the right to suspend acts passed by local executive authorities in case that these acts conflict with federal laws of Russia, its international commitments, or if they violate the human and civil rights and freedoms until the issue is resolved by appropriate court.
State power in Russia is carried out by dividing power into three independent branches: legislative, executive and judicial. Legislative power belongs to the Federal Assembly (the Parliament). Executive power belongs to the central and local governments. Judicial power is provided by appropriate judicial system and by civil, administrative and criminal legislation.
The President is the head of the state and determines the basic objectives of the internal and external policy of the state. He is elected for four years on the basis of universal, equal and direct right to vote by secret ballot for all eligible citizens. One and the same person cannot serve as President for more than two terms in succession. The President stops performing his duties ahead of time if he resigns, because of impeachment or if he cannot continue to carry out his duties due to poor health. Elections of a new President are to take place within three months and in the meantime his duties are acted upon by the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation.
The President appoints, with the consent of the State Duma the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, chairs the meetings of the government, adopts the decisions on the State Duma a candidate for appointment to the post of the Chairman of the Central Bank, presents to the Federation Council candidates for the posts of the Constitutional and Supreme Court justices, Supreme Arbitrage Court justices, and a candidate for the post of Prosecutor General. The President forms and heads the Security Council. He is the Supreme Federation and appoints and dismisses the supreme commanders of the Armed Forces. He appoints diplomatic representatives for approval by the Parliament. He confers supreme military and supreme special titles and honorary titles of the state. He has the right to show mercy and to decide on issues of citizenship. He has the right to introduce the state of emergency throughout the country or in a particular territory within the Russian Federation. The President has the right to dissolve the State Duma, to announce elections ahead of time and pass the decision to conduct a referendum on federal issue.
Ex.12. Scan the text and match the words given below to complete the sentences.
1. Russian is a ........ state.
2. Russian consists of ……… .
3. Authorities of the republics and regions have the right to pass laws
4. independently from ………… .
5. These laws cannot contradict ………. .
6. The President has the right to suspend …….. passed by local executive
7. authorities ……… .
(constituent entities, federal government, acts, federative, democratic, federal laws)
Ex.13. Choose from the given groups of words the appropriate one which fits each gap.
1. The President uses consensual procedures ……..
2. The dispute is transferred to the appropriate court ……..
3. State power in Russia is carried out by dividing powers ……….
4. The President stops performing his duties ahead of time if he resigns because of ….
5. He also selects and releases diplomatic representatives for approval by …………..
Ex.14. Read the text in detail to answer the following questions.
1. What type of state is Russia?
2. Who has the right to pass laws independently from the federal government?
3. When does the President use consensual procedures to resolve the problem?
4. Where is the dispute transferred to in case a consensus is not reached?
5. In which case does the President have the right to suspend acts passed by local executive authorities?
6. What are the three independent branches of state power in Russia?
7. Who determines the basic objectives of internal and external policy?
8. Why are the basic principles of voting when electing the President?
9. Who heads the Security Council?
Ex.15. Word study. Find verbs in the text that correspond to the nouns and translate them.
Election, service, resignation, management, confirmation, decision, introduction, dissolution, assignment, formation, suspension, enforcement.
Ex.16. Match these words and word combinations with their Russian equivalents.
Ex.17. Translator’s Corner: Translate into English the words in brackets.
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