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Reader’s Corner: ENFORCING THE LAW.
Read the text.
1. The state has many ways of making sure that citizens obey the law. It makes the public aware of what the law is and tries to encourage social support for law and order. It uses militia to investigate crimes and catch criminals. It authorizes courts to complete the investigation of criminal and civil offences and to pass sentences to punish the guilty and deter others. And it makes efforts to re-educate and reform people who have broken the law.
2. Ignorance of the law is almost never a defence for breaking it. Governments usually expect citizens to be aware of the laws which affect their lives. Sometimes this seems very harsh, for example, when the law is very technical. However, there are many laws, such as those prohibiting theft, assault and dangerous driving, which simply reflect social and moral attitudes to everyday behaviour. In such cases a person knows he is breaking the law, even if he does not know exactly which law it is.
3. So, the state combats crime through the courts, the Prosecutor's Office, investigating authorities, state security bodies, militia and other law-enforcement agencies. They have to perform a series of acts to establish the fact of the crime, discover the offender and determine the penalty to be imposed in virtue of law.
4. After receiving information that a crime has been committed, the investigator, for instance, commences the preliminary investigation: he inspects the scene of the crime, summons and questions witnesses, detains suspects, etc. During the investigation of a criminal case, he has the right to demand that citizens should take part in examinations and searches, and testify on the facts known to them; and that people in office make available certificates, documents etc. The militia, the investigator, the prosecutor and the court may make such demands only within the power vested in them by law.
5. The main objectives of the militia have always been to protect state and personal property, to maintain public law and order, to safeguard the rights and interests of citizens. To fulfil these functions properly the Internal Affairs bodies compose several departments. . The Criminal Detection Department is to detect the criminal that is to locate and arrest him (her). The Criminal Investigation Department collects evidence to prove the guilt or innocence of a suspect. The Economic Crimes Department reveals the economic offences. The mission of the State Inspection of Road Traffic Security is to regulate safety in the roads. The Juvenile Inspection is responsible for prevention of juvenile delinquency.
Ex.1. Paragraph Check. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each paragraph (1-5) of the text. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use.
A. The sequence of actions performed by the investigator once a crime has been committed
B. The bodies through which the state combats crime
C. The functions of the militia
D. The ways the state makes citizens obey the law
E. The awareness of the laws
F. The juvenile delinquency
Ex.2. Who performs the following action? Choose the necessary words from the list, given below
1. perform a series of acts to establish the fact of the crime.
2. makes the public aware of what the law is and tries to encourage social support for law and order.
3. should take part in examinations and searches.
4. authorizes courts to complete the investigation of criminal and civil offences and to pass sentences to punish the guilty and deter others.
5. makes efforts to re-educate and reform people who have broken the law.
Ex.3. Read the text in detail to answer the following questions.
1. Through what bodies does the state combat crime?
2. What acts must these bodies perform?
3. What does the investigator do after receiving information that a crime has been committed?
4. What rights do the investigating bodies have during the investigation of a criminal case?
5. What functions does the militia have to perform in the law-enforcement process?
6. Is ignorance of the law a defence for breaking it? Give reasons for it?
7. What are the ways of making sure that citizens obey the law?
Ex.4. Finish the sentences choosing from the words in brackets.
1. The Supreme Court examines more serious ________ (crimes, article, case, clause, murder).
2. After receiving the information that a crime has been committed, the investigator commences the preliminary ________
3. The militia safeguards _________
4. The challenge of the militia has always been to protect _____, to maintain _____.
Ex.5. Fill in the chart with the proper derivatives and think about their proper translation.
Ex. 6 Match the words in bold and phrases with their Russian equivalents.
1. The investigator commences the preliminary investigations.
2. The investigator summons and questions witnesses.
3. The mission of the State Inspection of Road Traffic Security is to regulate safety in the roads.
4. The Criminal Investigation Department collects evidence to prove the guilt or innocence of a suspect.
5. Criminal procedure is investigation of criminal cases by investigating bodies.
Ex.7.MEMORY CHECK. Which law-enforcement body deals with:
1. preliminary investigation?
2. witnesses and suspects?
3. road traffic offences?
4. juvenile delinquency?
1. the investigating bodies
2. the functions, performed by the investigating bodies
3. the investigator's duties
4. the acts, performed by the investigator
5. the categories of people, summoned and questioned by the investigator
6. the law-enforcement agencies taking part in investigations of criminal cases
7. the ways the state makes citizens obey the law
8. the departments of the militia