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Ex.3. Use the text and answer the questions.




a)

1. Where does new legislation in Britain usually start?

2. In how many stages is a bill considered in each house?

3. How are they called?

4. What is the fist reading like?

5. What is the second reading usually the occasion for?

6. What happens after the second reading?

7. When can the bill be amended?

8. Who must amendments made to a bill by the House of Lords be considered by?

9. What happens to the bill if the House of Commons does not agree?

10. Which House prevails in the event of persistent disagreement between the two houses?

11. Who does the bill go finally to?

12. What is the royal assent like nowadays?

13. What could the queen still do in theory?

14. Who was the last monarch to use this power?

b)

1. What is the lawmaking arm of the federal government in the USA?

2. What houses does it consist of?

3. Who may initiate new legislation?

4. Which house is the proposed legislation first introduced in?

5. What happens to it then?

6. What does the standing committee do?

7. How is the bill considered by the House of Representatives, if the committee passes it?

8. What does the bill go to the Senate for?

9. What happens in cases of disagreement?

10. What has to be done to the bill once passed by the Senate as a whole?

11. Who must it be finally signed by?

12. How can a bill still become a law if the president vetoes it?

Ex.4. Read the texts again and correct the statements.

1. New legislation in Britain usually starts in the House of Commons.

2. A bill is considered in four stages.

3. The stages are called meetings.

4. Amendments made to a bill by the House of Lords must be considered by the Prime Minister.

5. In the event of persistent disagreement between the two houses, the House of Lords prevails.

6. The house of Representatives is the only lawmaking arm in the USA.

7. Only the president may initiate new legislation.

8. The proposed legislation is first introduced in the Senate.

9. In cases of disagreement the Senate prevails.

10. Once passed by the Senate as a whole, the bill has to be examined by three more standing committees.

11. Finally, the bill must by signed by the Secretary of State.

12. The Secretary of State has the right to veto a bill.

Ex.5. Revise the text and fill in the gaps with the proper prepositions.

1. ____ each House a bill is considered ____ three stages, called readings.

2. The second reading is usually the occasion ____ debate.

3. ____ the second reading the bill is examined ____ detail ____ a committee.

4. The bill is then returned ____ one ____ the houses ____ the report stage.

5. Finally, the bill goes ___ the reigning monarch ____ the royal assent.

6. The proposed legislation, or bill, is first introduced ___ the House ____ Representatives, then referred ____ one ____ the standing committees.

7. If the committee passes the bill, it is considered ____ the House ___ Representatives ____ a whole.

8. If passed there, it goes ____ the Senate _____ a similar sequence _____ committee hearings and general debate.

Ex.6. Match the words on the left with the correct definition on the right.

1. to confer a) to refuse officially to allow something to happen, especially something that others have agreed.
2. a bill b) a piece of writing, a drawing, or plan that is not yet in its finished form
3. disagreement c) discussion or argument on a subject that people have different opinions about
4. to veto d) to arrange for something important to start, such as an official process or new plan
5. to refer e) a written proposal for a new plan, which is brought to a parliament so that it can be discussed
6. a draft f) to decide not to continue with a plan, idea, although you might continue with it at a later time
7. to shelve g) to send someone or something to another place or person for information, advice, or decision
8. to initiate h) a situation in which people express different opinions about something and sometimes quarrel
9. debate i) to discuss something with other people, so that everyone can express their opinions and decide on something
10. proposal j) a plan or suggestion which is made formally to an official person or group

 

Ex.7. Fill in the chart with the proper derivatives.

Verb Noun Adjective
1) consideration 2)
to legislate 3) 4)
5) 6) approving
7) initiation 8)
to propose 9) 10)
11) 12) debatable
to consider 13) 14)
to amend 15) 16)

 

Ex.8. Fill in the chart with the key words comparing lawmaking process in Britain, the USA and Russia, then speak about that in full sentences.

Questions Great Britain The USA Russia
1. Who may initiate a bill?      
2. How is the lawmaking arm called?      
3. Where does new legislation start?      
4. What are the stages of considering a bill?      
5. 1-s stage      
6. 2-d stage      
7. 3-rd stage      
8. Where can a bill be amended?      
9. Who finally signs a bill?      
10. Who has the right to veto?      
11. Can a bill still become a law if it has been vetoed?      
12. What is special about lawmaking in this country?      

 

An Essay is a piece of writing on a particular topic including all available information and facts. At the end of an essay the writer expresses his or her opinion on the topic and ideas if anything is to be improved. An essay is usually of A4 format and the writers’ ideas are not more than 1/5 of the whole text.

 

Ex.9. Follow this rule, use the words and expressions from the texts and write an essay on the lawmaking process in the Russian Federation.

 

Ex.10.Translator’s Corner. Translate the following sentences into Russian.

1. Сначала счет на транспортировку должен быть одобрен начальником отдела, а затем завизирован главным бухгалтером.

2. Проект расширения бизнеса долго обсуждали, но решили отложить до следующей зимы.

3. Если две трети проголосуют «ЗА», рабочий процесс будет организован в три смены.

4. Так как стоимость оборудования согласована с руководством компании-поставщика, то подписание протокола является абсолютной формальностью.

5. В результате детального изучения соглашения были внесены некоторые поправки.

6. За их несогласием, вероятно, последует еще одна подобная последовательность отрицательных действий.

7. В Государственной Думе Российской Федерации есть несколько постоянно действующих комитетов.

8. Если этот законопроект станет законом, то ситуация на рынке труда улучшится.

 



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