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Exercise 1

Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the function of the ing-forms.

The ing-form as a subject.

1. Avoiding difficulties is not my method.

2. It was no good chasing the insider trader.

3. It’s no use influencing the Board before the shareholders’ meeting.

The ing-form as part of a predicate (to form continuous tenses).

1. The government gives a subsidy to the industry that is suffering from foreign competition.

2. The terms of payment depend on the countries between which the trade is taking place.

The ing-form as an attribute.

1. If the call you receive is a direct incoming call you state the name of your company.

2. They won a convincing margin.

3. The terms of delivery depend on the kinds of goods being traded.

4. A nation must at all times combine devaluation with other effective measures to balance its economy, resulting in a reasonable level of employment and low rate of inflation.

5. The WTO has more than 130 members, accounting for 90% of world trade.

6. During 1982, the dollar rose against other major currencies to its highest level since the beginning of floating exchange rates in 1973.

The ing-form as an object.

1. The statistics used in determining a deficit or an excess are non-perfect.

2. They postponed giving a definite answer.

The ing-form used as a part of Complex Object.

1. I saw him speaking to the manager.

2. I left him making printouts.

3. If she catches you reading the quarterly breakdown of overheads, she’ll be furious.

The ing-form used as an adverbial modifier of time.

1. While working so hard he still receives all profits.

2. On arriving at the office he realized that the staff were upset.

The ing-form used as an adverbial modifier of cause.

1. Considering the complexity of the problem, the decision was reached at a rather early date.

2. Having been persuaded by the Sales Manager, Hector Grant opened up a new export Market in Abraca.

3. Being invited to Hector Grant John Martin, Sales Manager, told him about the chances of getting a large order in Abraca.

4. Having failed twice I was not at subject.

The ing-form used as an adverbial modifier of manner or attending circumstances.

1. McEnroe can make an extra profit on this deal, taking a small commission on the sale of the shoes.

2. We wasted a whole afternoon trying to detail actual expenditure against budget and the amount spent on travelling and entertainment.

The ing-form used as an adverbial participle phrase to express time.

1. Having bought a corporate bond, you have bought a portion of a large loan, and your rights are those of a lender.

2. Having increased sales by almost forty per cent John Martin has had a very successful year.

2. When do we use the Past Participle?

Past Participle has no tense forms, its action either precedes the action of the main verb or is simultaneous to it.



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