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Choose the correct form of the participles used as adjectives in the following sentences.


1. Garcia is a middleman (represented / representing) a newly independent country.

2. Explain the possible problems (associating / associated) with countertrade.

3. It’s natural that Coburn will be reluctant to ship $400,000 worth of gears without first having some assurance they will actually get (paying / paid).

4. You will agree this is a most (encouraging / encouraged) proposal.

5. An export transaction usually requires a lot of (complicating complicated) documentation.

6. The price (quoting / quoted) always indicates the terms of delivery.

7. If you are spelling a word to an English-(speaking / spoken) person on the phone, use the official Post Office alphabetical code.

8. When an investment is made, capital enters a country, enabling it to import (manufacturing / manufactured) materials to build a new (manufacturing / manufactured) plant and to pay workers to build it.

9. 70 members concluded a deal (covering / covered) more than 95% of trade in banking, insurance, securities and financial information.

10. Numerous (specializing / specialized) committees and (working / worked) groups deal with the individual agreements and other areas.

11. (Imported / Importing) Japanese cars accounted for almost one-forth of all cars (selling / sold) in the United States in the early 80s.

12. Mr. Thompson’s (approving / approved) smile let the agent know that he was one hundred per cent right when he presented the middleman with a (hand-making / hand-made) briefcase.

13. The sales representative offered the (approving / approved) specs to the partner.

14. A sentence in which some information is unnecessarily (repeating / repeated) is (calling / called) redundant.

15. (Giving / given) here are some quotations that are always (sending / sent) first and thus should be (keeping / kept) ready.

16. I am deeply honoured by the invitation (extending / extended) to me.

17. (Contributing / contributed) to the view of (declining / declined) competitiveness is the United States deficit in merchandise trade, especially the imbalance in trade with Japan.

18. Between sixty and fifty per cent of the gains in productivity (making / made) in the West in the last half-century spring from better (training / trained) minds, from more research, and more systematic use of the economy’s brain power.

19. The secretary opened the door to find colonel Usman (standing / stood) to attention, (waiting / waited) to escort Eduardo to the bank.

20. That position (establishing / established), he went on to check the bank’s reserves, long-term deposits, overseas commitments, and (estimating / estimated) oil revenues for the next five years.

2. What form of the participle should be used?


a. Participle I Non-perfect (Active and Passive) (- working; being received-) usually denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb. It may refer to the present, past or future.

When holding a stock in a company you are part owner of it. Владея акциями компании, вы являетесь ее совладельцем.
Not being sold at premium these stocks are called moderate-growth stocks. Так как эти акции продаются по цене не выше номинала, они называ-ются акциями умеренного роста.

b. Part I Perfect (Active and Passive) - (having liquidated; having been used) denotes an action prior to the action expressed by the finite verb.


Having required payment by an irrevocable letter of credit they insured themselves against the risk of currency exchange. Потребовав, чтобы платеж был осуществлен безотзывным аккре-дитивом, они обезопасили себя на случай риска валютного обмена.
Having already been informed about the company profits the stockholders wished to receive their proportionate share. Будучи проинформированными о прибылях компании, акционеры пожелали получить причитаю-щуюся им долю.


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