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Add prefix re-. Translate the new words.

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  1. A) Read the two texts and translate them into Russian in writing.
  2. A. Do pre-reading tasks before each abstract, then read and translate the abstracts about the basics of management.
  3. A. Read and translate the text.
  4. A. Read and translate the text.
  5. A. Read and translate the text.
  6. A. Read and translate the text.
  7. A. Read and translate the text.
  8. A. Read and translate the text.
  9. A. Read and translate the text.
  10. A. Read and translate the text.

Model: construct - reconstruct — переделать, реконструировать

install —_____________________ —_________________

insert —____________________ —_________________

mount —

159. Complete the sentences (b). Add the words given below (a).

a) ... mounting hardware ... drywall screws ... lag screws ... brass, copper, gun metal ... a screwdriver ... reinserted ...the drilled holes

b) 1. Screws are produced from ...


2. Screws are inserted into ...

3. Screws are turned with ...

4. Screws are often used for...

5. Screws can be easily...

6. ... are used for heavy structural connections.

7. Brittle (хрупкие) and weak screws are called...

160. Read the combinations. Translate them from Russian.

lag screw — рельсовый шуруп wrought nail — кованый гвоздь drill steel - буровая сталь

161. Use the English attributes a) and translate the Russian ones b).

a) sharp, common, bearing, flat, nailable, plain, main, sheet, anchor,
fastening, gun

Model: оружейное масло — gun oil

b) закрепляющий_________ -___________ screw

листовая _________ —_________ copper

обычная _________ -___________ steel

гвоздимое _________ —_________ iron

главная _________ —_________ series

анкерная _________ —_________ plate

опорная _________ -___________ surface

острый __________ —_________ screw

Read and translate the article.

Screws are cylindrical fastenings. They are driven through the side of a member by a screwdriver. Their heads may have different forms: flat, round, or raised. Screws are produced from iron, copper, brass, or gun-metal.

Kb Essential Course

Screws are inserted into drilled holes and turned with a screwdriver. They are little used in light framing since they take much more time to in­stall than nails. But they are often used in furniture. They make stronger connections than nails. They can be reinserted if a component must be re­mounted. Very large screws for heavy structures are called lag screws. As to drywall screws they are weak and cannot be used for structural connections.

162. Pair work. Put these questions to your groupmate.

1. What type of fasteners do wood fasteners include?

2. What type of steel serves for producing nails?

3. What devices are used for driving nails into wood members?

4. Why should some nails be of a corrosion-resistant type?

5. For what reasons are nails highly popular in construction work?

6. What form do screws have?

7. By what device are screws driven through the side of a member?

8. What metals are screws produced from?

9. For what reason are screws little used in light framing?


10. What is the name of very large screws used for heavy structures?

11. What do you know about drywall screws?

12. What is the difference between nails and screws?

MIND SIGNALS AND WARNINGS USED ON CONSTRUCTION SITES! Fasten the load! - Укрепите груз! Nail up this box. — Заделайте этот ящик. This area should be used for storage. — Эту площадь следует использовать для складирования.

TABLE VII Types of Nails


roofing nail concrete n. кровельный гвоздь гвоздь для бетона
flooring n. raftn. flat-headed n. г. для деревянных полов брусковый г. г. с плоской шляпкой
conus-headed n. to nail г. с конусовой головкой прибивать гвоздями

163. Translate the examples given in the table a) from English into Russian; b) from Russian into English.

Unit Eleven


Master the key terms and head words.

flat - плоский shingles (of wood) - дранка, дере-
near - близко, около вянная черепица, гонт

nearly - почти slate - ш ифер

pitch - скат, наклон thatch - солома, тростник

slope - уклон unit - элемент, сборная часть

sloping - пологий, покатый therefore - поэтому, следова­

164. Which of the given words are adjectives? adverbs?

broad, useful, considerable, economically, the only, the very, considerably, quickly, beautiless, attractive, nearly, proper, sloping, hardly, hard, slowly

165. Put down the verbs corresponding to the given nouns a); the nouns corresponding
to the given verbs b).

Model: a) reconstruction — to reconstruct — перестроить b) to consider — consideration — рассмотрение

a) installation -to___________________ —________________

limitation -to__________________ -_________________

dependence — to__________________ —________________

existence —to___________ ,____ —--------------------------

b) to protect -____________________ -----------------------------

to restore -.___________________ -:_________________

to supply —.__________________ -.---------------------------

to decrease —___________________ —________________

166. Read the given terminological combinations; translate them into Russian.

flat roof shingle nail thatched roof

sloping (pitched) roof unit area

167. Translate the following combinations into Russian.

properly chosen roofing materials uneconomical^ large sloping roof beautiful and well-installed flat roof roofing materials consisting of small units

Unit Eleven. Roof

* North LightT " Warren, or Saw Tooth.

Essential Course

168. Read and translate the questions.

1. What are the two main types of roof?

2. What factors does the covering of the roof depend on?

3. Which type of roof dries itself quickly of water?

4. What types of covering consist of small units?

5. What are their good qualities?

6. For what reason shouldn't pitched roofs be installed on broad and large buildings?

7. Which part of roof can serve as a balcony or a landscaped part of a building?

8. Are thatched roofs used in modern big cities? If not, why? Where are they mostly used nowadays?

Read the article. Translate it into Russian.

The roof is a necessary component of practically every building. It serves to protect the interior of the building from rain, snow, wind, and cold. There exist many types of roofs, the main ones being sloping (pitched) roofs and flat (or nearly flat) ones.

It is a well-known fact that every roof should have a covering. The type of covering of a roof mainly depends on the form of the roof and some other factors. The pitched roof is known to dry itself quickly of water. There­fore it can be covered with roofing materials consisting of small individual units. To these belong, for example, slate, shingles of wood, tiles of fired clay or concrete. These materials are widely used and popular as roofing coverings since they have a number of useful qualities. Firstly, the small units they consist of are easy to install. Secondly, they are easy to repair since they are individual and small. Thirdly, it should be taken into ac­count that they are rather cheap. So if a pitched roof is manufactured of properly chosen material and is well installed, it looks beautiful and at­tractive. But, of course, pitched roofs have their disadvantages. Roofs of this kind should not be installed on broad and large buildings. They do not look attractive on such buildings. As to flat roofs, they can cover very broad buildings. Another advantage of these roofs is that they can serve as balco­nies and decks and even be landscaped parts of buildings they cover. But they also have some disadvantages. One of them is that water evaporates too slowly from their surfaces.

Different roof coverings are used and they serve different purposes: of them shingle and sheet metal roofs may cover any type of building. But as to thatched roofing it is mostly used for country buildings, historic res­torations and some types of specialized buildings.

O&ee. Conical. Mtfgpnal;

Double Lean-To. M-Ro^f. Kinifbst. Qoeen ^StgminA

Pkrh Principal ;& c. . fbet.yy^Beam.

T «Ml --- lU/»W ИStfJniniSilt.

Couple. CoupleCbse. Collar.. ЫЩ&т> Queen Post.



Hammer beam.

§' m *|8 Queen,with p J \ .&' Princess Posts.

^ ^French, beliian Howe



" French. Belgian
Trussed or Fink.


-KneeBnice. Pratt

*N"or Pratt.

"N'orlinville. Lattice.

Whipple Murphy. $tation>



♦ * * I * t""N"or HojВас*

Fink. Bofman. Crescent.

Fig. 5. Roof

90 Essential Course

Unit Twelve

169. Fair work. Have a talk with your groupmate. Use the questions of Ex. 168.


Don't stand under the load! — He стойте под грузом!

No passage. Stop! — Проход в одном направлении. Стой!

Give the signal to lift the load. — Дайте сигнал о готовности к подъему.

Place the lorry for loading. — Установите грузовик под погруЗку.

Clear the building area! — Очистите погрузочную зону!

Unload the platform! — Разгрузите эту платформу!

The job requires a bulldozer. — Для этой работы требуется бульдозер.

Read the English and Russian variants of the signals and warnings.

170. Pair work. Ask your groupmate to translate the examples given in the table a) from English into Russian; b) from Russian into English.

Read and translate the article.

Loads on Roof

Generally the load on roofs consists of two components: the snow load and the wind-pressure. The action of these loads is quite different on flat roofs and pitched ones. The snow load on flat roofs is great; practically it is at the maximum. As to the wind pressure on roofs of this type, it is very small — practically it is at its minimum. On pitched roofs the situation is different; when the pitch of the roof increases the weight of the snow load decreases. As to the wind pressure, it increases with the increase of the pitch.

Arrange a talk on the article. Think of 5-6 questions covering it. Put the questions to your groupmate.

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