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Bone-Shaped Wires Strengthen, Harden Concrete

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  1. Concrete

Mixing small wires with enlarged ends into concrete increases the material's strength and hardness, according to research performed at the National laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico.

Researchers found that when bone-shaped wires 25 mm long were added in amounts equal to just 1 percent of the con­crete's volume, the strength increased by as much as 84 percent. The concrete was also 93 times harder.

Straight steel wires have been used to

reinforce concrete for several decades. But

wires of this kind bond only weakly with the

Fig. 2. Bone-shaped wires concrete at their ends. Besides, it turned out

that straight wires can also snap under high stress without much bending or stretching. In stress tests concrete containing the wires with bulbous ends became even stronger after the first cracks appeared as the load was transferred to the wires.

138. a) Mr work. Have a talk with your groupmate on the advantages of bone-shaped wires added to concrete. Use the questions given below.

1. What is the length of bone-shaped wires added to concrete?

2. What are the disadvantages of straight steel wires?

3. What did the results of stress tests show?

b) Think of a few questions of your own on the subject.

Unit Nine



Master the head words.

density — плотность to shed— проливать, лить, пропускать

pavement— мостовая to shut down— закрывать

139. State parts of speech. Translate the given words.

dense, store, storage, pave, pavement, unstable, repair, cause, shed

140. Translate the combinations into Russian in writing. Translate them back into Eng­
lish orally.

storage area —_______________________________

pavement surface —_______________________________

stone layer —_______________________________

pipe storage area —_______________________________

high-density pipe —_______________________________

economical way of repair________________________________ —

141. Read and translate thefollowing questions.

1. Why was it necessary to repair the pipe storage area at the plant?

2. What caused cracks in the stone layer?

3. What substance were polypropylene fibres mixed with?

Read and translate the article.

The plant where high-density polyethylene pipe is being manufac­tured needed repairs to its pipe storage area. The repairs became necessary because the stone layer did not shed water and it caused cracks. The crack­ing of the storage pavement area made it necessary to stabilize the site.

So it became necessary for engineers to look for a way that would be economical and would not require shutting down the operating area of the plant. After testing a number of alternatives, it was decided to use polypro­pylene fibres for the purpose. It was found out that when being mixed with soil the fibres produce the necessary stability. The way the engineers pro­posed turned out to be economical and quite successful.


Unit Nine. Pipe


This article may serve as an example of advertising modern special journals are so full of.

Master thekey terms and headwords.

shallow fill- низкая насыпь bury situations- зарытые место­положения versatility— многообразие

advanced- передовой benchmark- отметка высоты sewer — сточная труба, коллектор to trust- верить, доверять

142. Translatethe following combinations.

concrete's pipe's versatility high quality manufacturing

sanitary sewer advanced mix design

deep bury situations benchmark of industry

Read and translate the article.


The new concrete pipe being manufac­tured may be classified as the benchmark of industry. Among other excellent qualities, it possesses the highest structural strength com­pared with any sanitary sewer.


What are the main characteristics of the pipe that make it so popular? These are ad­vanced concrete mix design, and steel rein­forcement. High quality manufacture pro­cesses allow the pipe to be used in any site conditions, from shallow fills to deep bury sit­uations. Strength, concrete's pipe's durability and its versatility are the main properties that are combined in the pipe. They produce the technol­ogy one can trust.

ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION Storm-Water Pollution Filter

Master the key terms and head words.

sediment- осадок sponge— губка urban— городской solid— твердый

basket- корзина drain- дренаж, водосток oil— нефть, масло reduction- уменьшение, сокра­щение

Essential Course

Unit Nine. Pipe


143. State parts of speech. Translate the words.

pollute, new, newly, major, sponge, depend, dependable, aftereffect, re­duce, enter, entrance

144. Put down a) verbs corresponding to the given nouns, b) verbs corresponding to the
given adjectives, c) nouns corresponding to the given verbs, d) adjectives corre­
sponding to the given adverbs.

a) Model: invention - to invent

reduction - to_________ absorption - to_______ ^

filtration -to
suppliable -to
buildable -to
to relate  
to exist
actually -

removal - to________

b) Model: absorbable - to absorb

dependable - to__________

usable - to___________

removable - to__________

c) Model: to circulate - circulation

to produce —__________

to evaporate______________ —

to depend —____________

d) Model: newly — new

successfully —___________

commonly -____________

additionally -_____________

145. Read the terminological combinations. Translate them from Russian,
drain pipe — дренажная труба

drainage pipeline - дренажный трубопровод external cooling - внешнее охлаждение internal heat — внутреннее тепло

146. Combine the attributes (a) with the nouns (b). Translate the given Russian combi­
nations into English (c).


(a) oil (b) population filter
sponge duct circulation
urban hole substance railway

(c) Model: губчатый фильтр - sponge filter

циркуляция нефти -___________ _____

губчатое вещество — ___________

городское население —

нефтепровод -_________________________________ .

смазочное отверстие —_______________________________

междугородная железная дорога —_______________________ .

147. Translate the following combinations.

relatively low cost_____________________________________

newly invented urban filter______________________________

commonly used filters__________________________________

polymer filtration sponge_______________________________

removal of grease (жир), oil, and garbage (утиль)____________

Read and translate the article.

The newly-invented urban storm-water pollution filter is successful­ly used to reduce storm-water pollution. The filter removes the major por­tion of oil, grease, sediment, and garbage from stormy water and cleans it before it reaches the drain system and enters it. Solid pollutants, such as garbage and sediment, are collected in an internal basket of the filter. About 80 percent of the oil and grease is collected in a polymer filtration sponge. The newly invented pollution filter serves a safe and dependable installa­tion against water pollution caused by storm aftereffects.

It should be also noted that one more advantage of the filter is its price; the cost of the filter is lower than the cost of other commonly pro­duced filters.

148. Form the answers to the given questions.

1. What is the filter used for? to reduce, is used, it, pollution.

2. What substances pollute the water?

substances, to these, belong, and sediment, oil, grease.

3. In what part of the filter are oil and grease collected? a filtration sponge, are collected in, oil and grease.

149. Describe the urban storm-water pollution fdter.


----------- ,______ ,_________ ^^^^^ Essential Course


Master the key terms and head words.

deck — опалубка conventional — обычный, нормальный

rapid — быстрый to accommodate — приспосабливать

to solve — решать fatigue — усталость (металла)

150. State parts of speech. Translate the words.

accommodation, number, fatigue, allow, rapid, solve, accommodate )

151. Put down the combinations with the opposite meaning.

Model: the same scuppers - different scuppers (scupper - желоб)

more man power -____________________________________

heavy equipment —____________________________________

difficult transportation -_________________________________

slow installation -____________________________________ .

non-conventional materials -_____________________________

simple materials -____________________________________

high resistance -____________________________________

152. Translate the following combinations into Russian in writing. Translate them back
into English orally.

a great number of problems easy transportation

holes cut in the deck rapid accommodation

153. Read the following combinations. Translate them from Russian,
fatigue crack — трещина от усталости deck floor — пол балкона
fatigue limit — предел усталости deck slab — плита для настила
fatigue of metal — усталость металла deck roof— плоская крыша
Read and translate the article.

The fibre reinforced polymer bridge deck is a newly-invented arrange­ment. It is made up of composite materials. They are extremely useful since, because of their composition, they have a wide range of application. Com­pared with other conventional materials they can solve a much greater num­ber of problems.

One of the advantages of the bridge deck is that it is highly resistant to corrosion and fatigue. The material it is made up of is very easy to transport; it also allows rapid installation using lighter equipment and much less manpow­er. Holes are easily cut in the deck. They can be closed out to accommodate the same drainage scuppers that are used on conventional decks.

What are the five advantages of the fibre reinforced polymer bridge deck?

Control Yourself


Can you choose the correct variant without consulting the articles of Units 8-9? If you fail to do it, we recommend you to repeat the corresponding material.

1. Concrete is considered to be

a) a universally used material

b) a frequently used material

2. Various kinds of concrete are used

a) for a limitless number of building purposes

b) only for some building purposes

3. The main property of concrete is

a) its relatively low cost

b) that it can be formed into monolithic slabs

4. Concrete is known to be

a) fire-resistant

b) fire- and decay-resistant

5. Concrete is produced

a) by combining coarse and fine aggregates

b) by combining coarse and fine aggregates, Portland cement, and water

6. There exist(s)

a) only one way of producing concrete

b) many different ways of producing concrete

7. The only disadvantage of concrete is

a) that it has no form of its own

b) that it does not possess tensile strength

8. Concrete is frequently combined

a) with steel and iron

b) with copper

9. The main good qualities of prestressed concrete are

a) its high strength and durability

b) its buildability and low cost

,0- Й M84 trade COn"ete \ has practically limitless use. b) Nailable concrete J

11. Ferro-concrete is widely used

a) for construction of girders and beams

b) for construction of foundations, girders, beams, and dock walls

Essential Course

Control Yourself. Review of Units 8-9


12. Silica concrete belongs to

a) comparatively old types of concrete

b) comparatively new types of concrete

13. Decrease in weight leads to

a) a considerable increase in strength

b) a considerable decrease in strength

14. Foamy and cellular types of concrete

a) possess heavy weight

b) possess light weight

15. The quality of the cover zone is important for

a) providing concrete durability

b) providing concrete fire-resistance

16. Increasing workability of the mix is achieved

a) by pouring additional water into the mix

b) by evaporating water from the mix

17. Additional water produces

a) concrete's reinforcement corrosion and cracking

b) concrete's reinforcement corrosion-resistance


18. a) The use of CFRP plate bonding \ was considered to be useful b) The use of steel plate bonding / for strengthening the tower.

19. Mixing wires with enlarged ends into concrete


a) decreases the concrete's strength and hardness

b) increases its strength and hardness

20. For repairs of the pipe storage

a) polypropylene fibres are mixed with soil

b) polypropylene fibres are mixed with gravel

21. The urban storm-water pollution filter cleans the stormy water

a) before it enters the drain system

b) after it enters the drain system

22. Solid pollutants are collected

a) in an internal basket of the filter

b) in an external basket of the filter

23. Composite materials

a) are rarely used

b) have a wide range of application

24. The fibre reinforced polymer bridge deck

a) is highly resistant to corrosion

b) is highly resistant to corrosion and fatigue

25. The material it is made up of allows rapid installation using

a) heavy equipment and more manpower

b) lighter equipment and less manpower

Cover the right column. Translate the following sentences into English in writing. Com­pare your variants with the given ones. Correct your mistakes if any.

1. Charge the aggregate. 2. Reduce the mixing time. 3. Prepare a fine aggregate concrete mix. 4. This sand cannot be used for the preparation of concrete. It is too coarse.


1. Загружайте заполнитель.

2. Уменьшите время перемеши­вания смеси.

3. Приготовьте бетонную смесь с тонким наполнителем.

4. Этот песок не пригоден для приготовления бетона. Он слишком крупный (грубый).

Cover the right column. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Compare your variants with the given ones.

1. Измеряйте цемент массой. 2. Измеряйте воду объемом. 3. Измеряйте заполнитель массой и объемом.


1. Measure the cement by mass.

2. Measure the water by volume.

3. Measure the aggregate by mass and volume.

6 - 6049

Unit Ten

U nit Ten. Fasteners



Devices Used for Fastening

Master the key terms and head words.

device — прибор, устройство to intend - намереваться,

sheet — лист, полоса, пластина предназначать

series — серия, группа screw — винт

to fasten - скреплять, прикреп­лять

154. Read the terminological combinations. Translate them from Russian.

fastening device — прибор для закрепления fastening bolt - соединительный болт fastening screw — закрепляющий винт sheet copper — листовая медь sheet iron — тонкое листовое железо

155. Translate the following combinations.

heavy timber construction ___________________________

laminated wood framing_____________________________

light framing construction ___________________________

Read and translate the extract.

The fastening devices are the necessary elements in any construction work and as such they are highly in use. There are two main series of this type of devices. To one type belong devices intended for light framing. They are usually made of sheet metal. To the other type belong devices used for heavy timber and laminated wood framing. These are made of metal plate.

Answer the question: In what way do the two main series of fastening devices differ?

Master the key terms and head words.

anchor — анкер gun — ружье, орудие

bearing — опора hammer — молоток, молот

nail — гвоздь to sharpen — заострить

pin - стержень, шип, булавка to finish — отделывать

screw — винт, болт to bear — поддерживать, подпи­рать

156. Read the examples. Translate them from Russian.

screw driver — отвертка finish nails — отделочные гвозди

screw joint — винтовое соедине- finished material — готовый ма­
ние териал

bearing wall — несущая стена finishing — отделка

nail work — забивание гвоздей bearing area — несущая площадь
nail iron - гвоздильное железо

157. Translate the examples into Russian.

screw fastening bearing surface

screw shaped element nail head

Read and translate the article.

Many connections in wood structures depend on direct bearing of one member of the structure on another for their strength. Various simple fasteners are used for constructing purposes. Of them wood fasteners in­clude nails, screws, bolts, anchors and some others.

Nails are generally made of plain steel. It is of interest to note that steel used for nails is uncoated steel. Practically, nails are sharpened metal pins driven into wood with a hammer or a mechanical nail gun. There exist different types of nails. Among them common nails and finish nails are the two types most frequently used for fastening. Common nails have flat heads and are used for most structural connections in light framing constructions. The main property of finish nails is that they are headless. Finish nails are used to fasten finish wood work.

Fig. 4 shows the sizes of common nails. One can see that finish nails are the same length as common nails. Nails are usually named according to the purpose for which they are used as flooring, roofing, etc. Besides common and finish nails, there exists a great variety of other shapes. Face nail is a nail driven through a side of one wood member into the side of another one.

As to the screw nail, it has the form of a spiral. It turns like a screw

when it is driven with a hammer.

Nails that are exposed to rain, snow, and fog should be of a corro­sion-resistant type.


Essential Course

Unit Ten.. Fasteners


Why are nails so popular in the process of construction? They are extremely popular for fastening wood since they require no predrilling of holes. Another property that makes them so popular is that they are very simple to insert with a hammer or a mechanical nail gun.

Face nail

End nail

Toe nail


60d Ktf «W 30d JIM l«d 6' 5-V 5' «H" <■ 3H' 152mm Ютт I2?mm IHmm 102mm Ютп

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