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THE AMERICAN CIVIL SERVICE

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Many people think of a federal bureaucrat as a pencil pusher shuffling papers in Washington, D. C. This image, however, is not accurate. First of all, only 11 percent of all federal government employees work in Washington, D. C. Most of them work in regional and local offices scattered across the United States and the world. Second, FBI agents, forest rangers, and air-traffic controllers are as much part of the federal bureaucracy are as secretaries and file clerks. Their activities have little to do with bureaucratic paperwork.

Federal government employees play a vital role in assuring the smooth functioning of the United States government. Who are the people who work for the many departments and agencies that make up the federal bureaucracy? The typical man or woman in the federal service is about 43 years old and has worked for the government for a total of about 15 years. Federal workers are better educated than workers in the general population. More than a half of them have some college training, while a quarter have done graduate work at universities.

Federal workers hold a great variety of jobs. Besides administrative workers, the government also employs doctors, veterinarians, lawyers, cartographers, scientists, engineers, accountants, and many other professionals.

The way the civil servants get their offices is also important. During the first years of democracy, George Washington declared that he appointed government officials according to "fitness of character." Another president, Andrew Jackson argued that long service in the same jobs by any group of workers would only promote tyranny.

 

Письменно ответьте на вопросы.

1. What common features do federal workers have?

2. What kind of jobs do government employees hold?

3. How did civil servants get their offices in the first years of American democracy?

4. How were governmental officials appointed in the first years of American democracy?

 

3. Закончите следующие предложения:

1. Most of federal government employees work...

2. The typical man or woman in the federal service has worked for the government for...

3. George Washington appointed government officials according to...



 

4. Верны или неверны следующие утверждения:

1. The image of a federal bureaucrat as a pencil pusher shuffling papers is accurate.

2. The activities of FBI agent, forest rangers, and air- traffic controllers have little to do with bureaucratic paperwork.

3. Federal workers are worse educated than workers in the general population.

4. Andrew Jackson said that long service in the same jobs would promote tyranny.

 


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