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BUILDING CONSTRUCTION




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When an architect receives a commission for a building, he meets the client and discusses his requirements. After visiting the site, the architect draws up preliminary plans and, together with a rough estimate of the cost, submits them to the client for his approval. If the client suggests changes, the architect incorporates them into the final design which shows the exact dimension of every part of the building. At this stage, several building contractorsare invited to bid for the job of constructing the building. When they submit their tenders or prices, the architect assists his client in selecting the best one and helps him to draw up a contract between the client and the contractor.

Work now starts on the building. As construction proceeds, the architect makes periodic inspections to make sure that the building is being constructed according to his plans and that the materials specified in the contract are being used. During the building period, the client pays the bills from the contractor. Subsequently, the contractor completes the building and the client occupies it. For six months after completion there is a period known as the ‘defects liability period’. During this period, the contractor must correct any defects that appear in the fabric of the building. Finally, when all the defects have been corrected, the client takesfull possession of the building.

 

II. VOCABULARY

 

1. commission [kəˈmɪʃən] “Let me give you your first commission now”, Mr Clive;   заказ - Разрешите предложить вам первый заказ, мистер Клайв.
2. requirement [rɪˈkwaɪəmənt] essential requirement to fulfill a requirement The requirement was satisfied. требование важное требование выполнять требование Требование было выполнено.
3. site [saɪt] bridge site building site road The site area is 230 x 260 m. строительная площадка место строительства моста подъездные пути к стройке Площадка имеет размеры 230 х 260 м.
4. to draw [drɔː], (drew, drawn) to draw a picture to draw up a contract We'll notify her to draw up a contract.     чертить, рисовать рисовать картину составить контракт Мы попросим её (дадим ей задание) составить контракт.
5. estimate [ˈestɪmət] rough[ rʌf] estimate accurate estimate approved estimate This figure is just a rough [rʌf] estimate.     оценка приблизительная оценка. точная оценка утвержденная смета Данная цифра – лишь приблизительная оценка.
6. to submit [səbˈmɪt] to submit a plan to submit a tender to submit smth to smb's consideration   to submit for approval We have decided to submit a draft resolution on this item. представлять, предлагать представлять план на рассмотрение представлять заявку на подряд представить что-либо на чье-либо рассмотрение представлять на утверждение Мы решили представить проект резолюции по этому пункту.  
7. approval [əˈpruːvəl] design approval approval of a building to submit smth for approval   They submitted their preliminary plan for approval. одобрение, утверждение утверждение проекта приемка здания представлять что-либо на утверждение Они представили свой предварительный план для одобрения.
8. to incorporate [ɪnˈkɔːpəreɪt] You can incorporate many of those techniques [tekˈniːks] into your work.   объединять Вы можете воспользоваться многими изметодов в своей работе.  
9.dimension [daɪˈmenʃən] dimension on a drawing fixing dimension Standard bricks, however, have small dimensions, and building houses from them requires considerable labor inputs. размер размер на чертеже монтажный размер Однако стандартные кирпичи имеют малые размеры, и постройка дома из них весьма трудоемка.
10. to bid for smth [bɪd] (bid/bade, bidden)   to bid for a job Several contractors [kənˈtræktə] bid for the job. to bidsmth for smth   They bid £300 for the painting.   предлагать цену за выполнение работы или оказание услуг     Несколько подрядчиков принимали участие в тендере. предлагать какую-либо цену за что-либо Они предложили 300 фунтов за картину.  
11.to assist [əˈsɪst] 'Can I assist you, sir?' asked Wegg.   помогать - Не помочь ли вам, сэр? - спросил Вегг.  
12.to take possession of smth [teɪk] [pəˈzeʃ(ə)n]   Thousands of people have been killed just to take possession of their properties. становиться владельцем, вступать во владение   Тысячи людей были убиты только ради того, чтобы завладеть их имуществом.  
   

III. READING COMPREHENSION







1. Answer the questions

 

1. What possible organizational relationships between the client, architect and contractor does the text describe?

2. When does the architect meet the client to discuss his requirements?

3. When does the architect give the client a rough estimate?

4. When do the architect and the client discuss the preliminary plan?

5. What does the final design show?

6. When does the contractor submit his tender?

7. Who helps the client to choose the contractor and sign a contract with him?

8. Why does the architect make periodic inspections?

9. What is the contractor responsible for?

10. When does the client take full possession of the building?

 

2. Read the statements and say whether they are true (T) or false (F). Correct the false ones

 

1. The client gives the architect his commission.

2. The architect visits the site and draws up preliminary plans which he submits to the client for his consideration.

3. The architect never incorporates the client’s changes into the final design.

4. The client sets the cost limit.

5. The architect chooses the contractor.

6. The contractor draws up a contract between the architect and the client.

7. Periodically, the contractor submits his bills to the client.

8. The architect is not responsible for making periodic inspections during the building period.

9. The contractor corrects any defects in the building.

10.The architect takes full possession of the building after the defects liability period.

 

3. Choose the correct word or word combination

 

1. After receiving a commission the architect meets the client and discusses his ....

a. proposals b. offers c. requirements

2. After visiting the site, the architect draws up ... plans.

a. rough b. preliminary с. periodic

3. The architect ... preliminary plans together with a rough estimate to the client for his approval.

a. submits b. offers c. improves

4. If the client ... changes, the architect incorporates them into the final design.

a. corrects b. selects с. suggests

5. The final design shows the exact ... of every part of the building.

a. dimension b. inspection c. completion

6. Several building contractors are invited to ... the job of constructing the building.

a. look for b. bid for с. get

7. The architect assists his client in selecting the best ...

a. bill b. price с. tender

8. The architect helps his client to draw up a contract with the ...

a. provider b. inspector c. contractor

9. During the building period the client ... the bills from the contractor.

a. beats b. foots c. pays

10. As construction proceeds, the architect makes periodic ...

a. corrections b. inspections c. approvals

11. During the building period the client ... the bills from the contractor.

a. beats b. foots c. pays

12. The contractor ... the building and the client occupies it .

a. discusses b. suggests c. completes

13. The contractor must correct any defects that appear in the fabric of the building during the ‘defects liability period’.

a. costs b. changes c. defects

4. Complete the sentences

 

1. When an architect receives a commission for a building ...

2. After visiting the site, the architect submits preliminary plans and a rough estimate of the cost ...

3. If the client suggests changes ...

4. Several building contractors are invited ...

5. The architect assists his client ...

6. During the building period the client ...

7. Subsequently, the contractor completes ...

8. For six months after completion ...

9. The contractor must correct ...

10. Finally, when all the defects ...

IV. ANALYZE

1. Match the words and expressions with their Russian equivalents

 

1 to receive a commission aобсуждать требования
2to discuss requirements bпредлагать изменения
3rough estimate cоплачивать счет
4to submit a plan dсоставить контракт
5to suggest changes eвступать во владение
6to make up a contract fпредставить план на рассмотрение
7to make inspections gисправлять дефекты
8to pay a bill hпредварительная оценка
9to correct defects iполучать заказ
10to take possession jпроводить проверку

 

 

2. Match the words with their definitions

 

1architect aa formal written offer to provide goods or services for a particular price
2site bsomething that a rule, law, contract etc states that you must do or something that is needed in order for something else to happen
3 approval csomeone whose job is to design buildings
4 contractor   dto offer to do work or provide a service for a particular amount of money
5 client ean area of land where something is being built or could be built
6 requirement fa person or company whose job is to provide goods or to do work for another person, organization, company etc at a particular price
7 to bid gan amount that you guess or calculate using the information available
8 tender ha positive feeling that you have towards someone or something that you think is good or suitable
9 estimate isomeone who pays for the services of a professional person or uses a service that provides help or advice
   

2. Put the words in the correct word order

 

1. Requirements / an / discusses / receives / meets / commission/ he / a/ the / client / and / architect / his / when / .

2 .Plans / the / visiting / after / architect / the / preliminary / draws / site / up / .

3. Suggest / the / changes / client / may / .

4. Building/are/contractors/invited / to / the/bid/of/constructing/for/job / the / .

5. Submits / the / tender / contractor / his / .

6.Contractor / in / assists / client / his / best / the / selecting / architect / the / .

7. Architect / proceeds / the / makes / as / construction / inspections / periodic / .

8. Period / pays / client / the / bills / the / contractor / the / from / during / building / the / .

9. Completes / the / contractor / building / the / occupies / the / client / and / it / .

10. Defects / must / contractor / any / correct / the / .

 

3. Give the English equivalents

 

архитектор..........................................................................................................

клиент......................................................................................................................

получать заказ.........................................................................................................

обсуждать требования..............................................................................................

строительная площадка.......................................................................................

предварительный................................................................................................

приблизительный / примерный...........................................................................

одобрение..............................................................................................................

предлагать изменения..........................................................................................

вносить / включать изменения................................................................................

размер..................................................................................................................

представлять заявку на подряд............................................................................

составить контракт................................................................................................

проводить проверку..................................................................................................

оплачивать счет......................................................................................................

завершать.............................................................................................................

исправлять дефекты.............................................................................................

вступать во владение............................................................................................

 

4. Prove the following statements

 

4. It is necessary for the architect and the client to discuss preliminary plans.

5. The contractor needs to bid for the job of constructing the building.

6. The architect is to make periodic inspections during the construction period.

 

V. TRANSLATE

1. Когда архитектор получает заказ, он встречается с клиентом и обсуждает с ним его требования………………..

…………………………………………………………………..

2. После посещения строительной площадки архитектор разрабатывает предварительные планы.…….....

………………………………………………………………….

3. Если клиент предлагает изменения, архитектор вносит их в окончательный дизайн-проект…………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………...

4. Несколько подрядчиков приглашаются для участия в тендере……………..

…………………………………………………………………………………...

5. Архитектор помогает клиенту выбрать лучшего подрядчика и составить с ним контракт……………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………...

6. Во время строительства архитектор проводит периодические проверки….

…………………………………………………………………………………...

7. Во время строительства клиент оплачивает счета, выставляемые подрядчиком……………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………...

8. Подрядчик завершает строительство и клиент занимает здание…………..

…………………………………………………………………………………...

9. Шесть месяцев после завершения – это период, который известен как «гарантийный срок эксплуатации здания»…………………………………...

…………………………………………………………………………………...

10. Во время этого периода подрядчик обязан устранять все дефекты………...

…………………………………………………………………………………...

11. В конечном счете, когда все дефекты удалены, клиент вступает в полное владение зданием………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………...

 

VI. SPEAK

1. Interview

 

Work in pairs and prepare an interview with an experienced architect.

Student A is a high school student who wants to go to college and follow a career in Civil engineering.

Student B is an architect.

 

 

2. Speak about possible organizational relationships between the client, architect and contractor


 

UNIT 3

 

Tunnel Engineer

 

Preview Answer the questions. 1. Why tunnels are very necessary nowadays? 2. Can you imagine modern life without tunnels? Why? 3. Do you think cutting tunnels is dangerous? If so, why?

 

 

I. LISTENING AND READING

Listen to the text

Read and translate the text

 

 


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