:





THE GREAT BELT EAST BRIDGE




:
  1. BANKS IN GREAT BRITAIN
  2. Customs and Traditions in Great Britain
  3. Great Britain
  4. GREAT BRITAIN
  5. Higher Education in Great Britain
  6. Holidays in Great Britain
  7. Pierre Curie. A great Physicist
  8. Text 2. Alexander the Great and his Influence
  9. The city of Cambridge
  10. The Educational System of Great Britain

The Great Belt East Bridge is part of a link between Denmark and Sweden. The first design was made in 1965. It consisted of a box girder bridge with two central spans, each 400m in length. These were supported by piers. The idea was that ships sailing in one direction would pass under one span, and those sailing in the other direction would use the other span.

Because ships became larger and larger, this design was abandoned and a new design made in 1973. This had a much wider central span of 780m. This is greater than the limit for box girder bridges around 500m. At this point even the strongest steel bends under its own weight. So a cable stay bridge was proposed. With cable stay bridges, the decks are built out from each pier until they meet in the middle. The longer the bridge, the more difficult it is to control the movement of the ends when it is windy 1,000m is about the limit for such bridges.

Construction was further delayed and in the meantime ships grew larger than ever. Experiments showed that large ships could not safely pass each other under the bridge even with the wider span. The risk of collision was too great. The only alternative was a suspension bridge. A new design was made in 1993 for a suspension bridge with a 1,600m span at that time the longest bridge in the world. To supportsucha span, two huge towers, each 254m high, were built. The bridge deck is quite slender only four metres deep. To prevent twisting in the wind, the deck was specially shaped. The suspension bridge was finally completed in 1998.

Notes:

 

The Great Belt East Bridge [brɪdʒ]

Denmark [ˈdenmɑːk]

Sweden [ˈswiːdən]

 

II. VOCABULARY

 

1. to make a design [dɪˈzaɪn] The first design was made in 1965. , 1965 .
2. box girder bridge[bɒks ˈɡɜːdə brɪdʒ] Thebox girder bridgehad two central spans, each 400m in length. , 400 .
3. to support a span[səˈpɔːt ə spæn] To support a span, two huge [hjuːdʒ] towers were built.   , .
4. to be supported by a pier[səˈpɔːt pɪə] The spans were supported by piers. .
5. to pass under a bridge [pɑːs ˈʌndə ə brɪdʒ] Large ships could not pass under the bridge.   c.
6. in the direction[dɪˈrekʃən] I'd give you a lift, but I'm going in the opposite[ˈɒpəzɪt] direction. , () .
7. to abandon smth[əˈbændən]     The game had to beabandoned because of rain. -, (- / -) - .
8. to bend under one's own weight[bend ˈʌndə weɪt] When a span is very long even the strongest steel bends.   , .
9. to build out a deck[bɪld aʊt ə dek] The decks are built out from each pier until they meet in the middle. , , .
10. to propose a cable stay bridge[prəˈpəʊz ə brɪdʒ]   A cable stay bridgewas proposed. -   - .
11. to control movement[kənˈtrəʊl] It is difficult to control the movement of the bridge when it is windy. .
12. to delay construction[dɪˈleɪ] The construction of the bridge was delayed. .
13. the risk of collision[kəˈlɪʒən] The risk of collisionwas too great. .
14. alternative[ɔːlˈtɜːnətɪv] Can you suggest an alternative?   There was no alternative but to close the road until February. ? .
15. a suspension bridge[ə səˈspenʃən brɪdʒ] The suspension bridgewas with a span of 1,600m in length.   1,600 .
16. slender[ˈslendə] The bridge deck is quite slender only four metres deep. , .
17. to prevent twisting in the wind[prɪˈvent ˈtwɪs tɪŋ ɪn ðə wɪnd] To prevent twisting in the windthe deck was specially shaped.   , .

 





 



III. READING COMPREHENSION

1. Answer the questions

 

1. What is The Great Belt East Bridge?

2. When was the first design made?

3. What did the bridge consist of then?

4. What supported the structure?

5. How could ships pass the bridge?

6. Why was the new design made?

7. What was different in the new design?

8. Why was a cable stay bridge proposed?

9. How are the decks of the bridge built out?

10. What problems are associated with long bridges?

11. Why was a suspension bridge the only alternative?

12. What made the project outstanding?

13. When was the bridge completed?

 

 

2. Read the statements and say whether they are true (T) or false (F). Correct the false ones

 

1. The Great Belt East Bridge is part of a link between England and France.

2. The first design was a cable stay bridge with two piers.

3. Two central spans of a box girder bridge were supported by piers.

4. The design of a box girder bridge was abandoned because ships became larger and larger.

5. Even the strongest steel bends if the wind is too strong.

6. The limit for cable stay bridges is around 780m.

7. A cable stay bridge was completed in 1973.

8. The longer the bridge, the more difficult it is to control the movement of the ends.

9. A suspension bridge was proposed because it was easier to control the movement of the deck.

10. To support the structure of the suspension bridge two piers were built.

11. The bridge deck is quite slender and specially shaped to prevent twisting in the wind.

12. The construction of the bridge was not completed util 1998.

 

3. Choose the correct word or word combination

 

1. The Great Belt East Bridge ... part of a link between Denmark and Sweden.

a. makes b. is c. meets

2. The first design ... in 1965.

g. was supported b. was delayed c. was made

3. The first design consisted of a box girder bridge with two ... .

a. piers b. spans c. decks

4. This design ... because ships became larger and larger.

a. was completed b. was prevented c. was abandoned

5. This bridge had much ... central span of 780m.

a. larger b. wider c. longer

6. At this point even the strongest steel ... under its own weight.

a. sails b. twists c. bends

7. A cable stay bridge ... .

a. was built b. was proposed c. was shaped

8. The ... are built out from each pier until they meet in the middle.

a. towers b. decks c. ends

9. It is difficult to control the ... of the ends when it is windy.

a. construction b. direction c. movement

10. ... was further delayed.

a. alternative b. construction c. collision

11. To support such a span, two ... towers, each 254m high, were built.

a. safe b. new c. huge

12. The bridge deck is quite ... only four metres deep.

a. slender b. stronger c. greater

 

4. Complete the sentences

 

1. The Great Belt East Bridge is ...

2. The first design ...

3. The design consisted of ...

4. Each span was ...

5. The idea was ...

6. This design was abandoned because ...

7. A new design made in 1973 had ...

8. This is greater ...

9. At this point even ...

10. With cable stay bridges, the decks are ...

11. The longer the bridge, ...

12. Experiments showed that ...

13. A new design was ...

14. To support such a span ...

15. To prevent twisting ...

16. The suspension bridge

 

IV. ANALYZE

1. Match the words and expressions with their Russian equivalents

 

1a cable stay bridge a
2to control movement b
3to propose a design c
4a pier d
5a suspention bridge e
6to delay construction f
7to make a design g
8a box girder bridge h-
9to support a span i
10to prevent twisting j

 

2. Match the words with their definitions

 

1an alternative aa large strong post that supports a bridge or part of a building
2 to propose bto make a machine, system, vehicle etc move or operate in the way that you want it to
3 collision cextremely large in size
4 to twist dto stop something that you are doing or planning to do, especially because it is too difficult to continue
5 to control ea tall narrow structure or building that stands alone
6 windy fto suggest a plan, idea, or action
7 huge gsomething that you can choose instead of something else
8 a tower han accident in which a person or vehicle that is moving crashes into something
9 a pier ito force something out of its original shape by bending it or turning it round
10to abandon jwith a lot of wind

 

3. Put the words in the correct word order

 

1. Denmark / bridge / the / part / is / of / between / a / Sweden / a / link / and/ .

2. Design / made / was / first / in / 1965 / .

3. Two / spans / the / bridge / of / consisted / .

4. Piers / supported / by / were / spans / the / .

5. Span / pass / was / ships / would / the / under / that / idea / the / .

6. Larger / design / was / larger / and / ships / the / became / because / abandoned / .

7. Design / the / had / new /a / span / much / wider / central / .

8. Built / pier / are / out / the /from / each / decks / .

9. Bridge / pass /under /safely /other / each / ships / not / large / the / could/ .

10. Great / collision / of / risk / was / the / too / .

11. Suspension / 1,600m span / a / was / a / bridge / proposed / with / .

12. Twisting / was / prevent / to / specially / in / shaped / the / wind / deck / .

4. Give the English equivalents

 

򅅅.

򅅅..

򅅅...

酅...

셅.

-...

셅..

...

........

-.....

充..

.........

.

...

....

5. Prove the following statements

 

1. Designing the Great Belt East Bridge was associated with some problems.

2. A suspension bridge was the only alternative to let large ships pass.

 

 

V. TRANSLATE

1. ..

2. - 1965 ....

3. , 400 ..

...

4. 腅........................

.......

5. , , 1973 ..

......

6. 780 ⅅ.

......

7. 500 , 셅.

......

8. , 充

.......

9. , 󅅅.

..

10. , , 셅......

......

11. 򅅅.......

......

12. , 󅅅

.......

 

VI. SPEAK

1. Interview

 

Work in pairs and prepare an interview

Student A is a high school student who has presented a report about The Great Belt East bridge.

Student B wants to find out more about the bridge construction and the way it operates.

 

 

2. Speak about one of the famous bridges

 


 

 

1. Glendinning, Eric H.

Technology 1. Students book.

Oxford University Press, 2007.

2. Glendinning, Eric H., Pohl, Alison.

Technology 2. Students book.

Oxford University Press, 2008.

3. Macmillan English Dictionary For Advanced Learners.

Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2002.

4. . : ./ ; . . -. . . . . .: : һ, 2004. 270, [2] .


: 2015-04-16; : 7;







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