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ARBITRATION




1.Arbitration is a legal technique for the resolution of disputes outside the courts, wherein the parties to a dispute refer it to one or more persons, by whose decision they agree to be bound. Arbitration is classified as a form of binding dispute resolution, equivalent to litigation in the courts, and entirely distinct from the various forms of non-binding dispute resolution, such as negotiation, meditation, or non-determinations by experts.

2.It is not known exactly when formal non-judicial arbitration of disputes first began, but records from ancient Egypt to attest to its use especially with high priests and their interaction with the public. The first recorded judicial decision relating to arbitration was in England in 1610. Under English law, the first law on arbitration was the Arbitration Act 1697, but when it was passed arbitration was already common.

3.Arbitration is today most commonly used for the resolution of commercial disputes, particularly in the context of international commercial transactions and sometimes used to enforce credit obligations. It is also used in some countries to resolve other types of disputes, such as labour disputes, consumer disputes or family disputes, and for the resolution of certain disputes between states and between investors and states. Today, arbitration also occurs online. The procedure occurs following the filing of a claim online, with the proceedings taking place over the internet, and judgment rendered on the basis of documentation presented.

4.Parties often seek to resolve their disputes through arbitration because of a number of perceived potential advantages over judicial proceedings. Arbitration is often faster than litigation in court. It can be cheaper. Arbitral proceedings and an arbitral award are generally private, and arbitration awards are generally easier to enforce abroad than court judgments. The arbitral process enjoys a greater degree of flexibility than the courts.

Определите, является ли утверждение:

Arbitration became common after the Arbitration Act 1697 in England.

-: истинным

-: в тексте нет информации

-: ложным

 

Определите, является ли утверждение:

Arbitration online is the fastest way for the resolution of disputes.

-: истинным

-: ложным

-: в тексте нет информации

Определите, является ли утверждение:

Arbitration and litigation are both forms of binding dispute resolution.

-: в тексте нет информации

-: истинным

-: ложным

Определите, является ли утверждение:

Arbitration is only used for commercial and labour disputes resolution.

-: в тексте нет информации

--: ложным

-: истинным

Укажите, какой части текста (1,2,3,4) соответствует следующая информация:

Arbitration has some strong features over litigation.

-: 1

-: 4

-: 2

-: 3

Укажите, какой части текста (1,2,3,4) соответствует следующая информация:

According to its definition arbitration has the same form as litigation has.

-: 2

-: 4

-: 1

-: 3


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