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PROFESSIONAL JUDGES




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  1. For future development and progress. It trains people to become teachers, engineers, doctors and other professional workers.

1. Professional judges in civil-low countries are markedly different from those in common-low countries. In a typical civil-law country, a person graduating from law school makes a choice between a judicial career and a career as a private lawyer. If he chooses the former, he is appointed to the judiciary by the minister of justice. His first assignment is to a low-lever court. His promotions and assignments depend upon the way his performance is regarded by a council of senior judges, or upon the judgment of the minister of justice.

2.In common-law nations, the path to judicial office is quite different. Upon completion of his formal education, a person spends up to 25 years in the private practice of law or, less commonly, in law teaching or governmental legal service and then, at about age 50, becomes a judge. He takes no competitive examination but is appointed or elected to office. In England the appointive system prevails for all levers of judges. Appointments are primarily under the control of the Lord Chancellor. In the United States, the appointive method tends to be highly political. Appointments are made by the chief executive of the state and are subject to legislative approval. A third method of judicial selection involves the creation of a nominating commission that screens judicial candidates.

3.In common-law countries, a person does not necessarily enter the judiciary at a low level; he may be appointed or elected to his nation’s highest court or to one of its intermediate courts. He does not look forward to any regular pattern of promotion, no is he necessarily assured of long tenure with ultimate retirement on a pension.

4.While in office, the common-law judge enjoys greater power and prestige and more independence than his civil-law counterpart. He occupies a position to which most members of his profession aspire. He is not subject to outside supervision and inspection. The only administrative control over him is that exercised by judicial colleagues.

Определите, является ли утверждение:

Professional judges in the civil-law tradition are appointed to the judiciary by judicial colleagues.

-: истинным

-: ложным

-: в тексте нет информации

 

Определите, является ли утверждение:

The tenure of the common-law judges is limited to a stated term of years.

-: в тексте нет информации

-: истинным

-: ложным

Определите, является ли утверждение:

The profession of the common-law judges is more prestigious than that of civil-lae judges.

-: истинным

-: в тексте нет информации

-: ложным

Определите, является ли утверждение:

Senior judges are vested with power to retire their judicial colleagues.

-: ложным

-: истинным

-: в тексте нет информации

I:

Укажите, какой части текста (1,2,3,4) соответствует следующая информация:



The appointive system in common-law nations is a complicated one.

-: 3

-: 1

-: 2

-: 4

Укажите, какой части текста (1,2,3,4) соответствует следующая информация:

In civil-law countries the path to judicial office is an easy one.

-: 1

-: 4

-: 3

-: 2

Ответьте на вопрос:

Whose control are the appointments of judges in England under?

-: The appointments of judges are under the control of the chief.

-: The appointments of judges in England are not controlled at all.

-: The Prime Minister is responsible for appointments of judges.

-: Lord Chancellor controls appointments of judges.

I:

Определите основную идею текста:

-: The civil-law judge is a civil servant.

-: There is a difference in appointive system of professional judges in the United

States and England.

-: Professional judges in civil-law countries and common-law nations are different

from the initial stage of their career till the retirement on a pension.

-: Professional judges in civil-law countries have better education than those in the

common-law nations.


I:

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