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XV. Open the brackets
1. All the roads were blocked: it (to snow) all night long.
2. She fell ill because she (to work) very hard.
3. I (to wait) for you since 5 o'clock.
4. It (to rain) since Sunday.
5. How long you (to study) English?
6. You look tired. - Yes, I (work) at my project.
7. Next year I (to study) for 4 years.
XVI. Render the text “Introduction to Cross-Culture”
XVII. Work as one group. Choose some of the English-speaking countries. Find out what seemingly diverse countries have in common with you – and what they don't .
XVIII. Discussion. Study the article in several groups and try to find arguments to support the points of view mentioned at the beginning of the article in bold type. Discuss the Sample Contents at the end of the article using the material of the present Module and the information from the Internet
Leading across Cultures
Different cultures have diverse concepts of leadership. Leaders can be born, elected, or trained and groomed. Others seize power or have leadership thrust upon them. Leadership can be autocratic or democratic, collective or individual, meritocratic or unearned, desired or imposed.
It is not surprising that business leaders (managers) often wield their power in conformity with the national set-up – for instance a confirmed democracy like Sweden produces low key democratic managers; Arab managers are good Muslims; Chinese managers usually have government or Party affiliations.
Leaders cannot readily be transferred from culture to culture. Japanese Prime Ministers would be largely ineffective in the United States; American politicians would fare badly in most Arab countries; Mullahs would not be tolerated in Norway. Similarly, business managers find the transition from one culture to another fraught with difficulties. Such transfers become more and more common with the globalisation of business, but the composition of international teams, particularly the choice of their leaders, requires careful thought. Autocratic French managers have to tread warily in consensus-minded Japan or Sweden. Courteous Asian leaders would have to adopt a more vigorous style in argumentative Holland or theatrical Spain if they wished to hold the stage. German managers sent to Australia are somewhat alarmed at the irreverence of their staff and their apparent lack of respect for authority.
In this workshop we analyse leadership styles in various cultures and discuss strategies for managing international teams, who have different expectations from leaders than may be normal for your culture.
Introduction: Are leaders born, groomed, trained or accidental?
Leadership styles in 20 cultures
The Asian concept of leadership
Conflicts between European and American management styles
The “Manager’s Day” in different cultures
Individual and Team Leadership
The Language of Leading
20 Cultures – 20 Motivations
Leading the International Team
The Multicultural manager
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