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  1. A. Complete the sentences according to the information in the text.
  2. Act out a teacher-class session, telling your students the origin of Robinson Crusoe. Feel free to add any comments or relevant information.
  3. And authors to schoolchildren. Feel free to add any relevant information.
  4. B) Comment on the given information and speak about the financial aspect of getting a higher education in the US A.
  5. B. Read the information and say if you were right in your guesses.
  6. B. Say whether the following statements are true, false or there is no information on the subject of the text.
  7. Characteristics of Good Information
  8. Compose your own dialogues using the information of texts 5C and 5D.
  9. Consult the TEXTS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY READING and complete the information about ecology as a science (Texts 20, 21). Be ready to discuss the information you have read.
  10. Consult the TEXTS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY READING and complete the information about electricity (Texts 34, 35, 36, 37). Be ready to discuss the information you have read.



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Санитарно-эпидемиологическое заключение


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[1] Qualifications - квалификационная степень, присвоенная в ВУЗе

[2] Master of Arts - магистр гуманитарных наук

[3] Experience - опыт (работы)

[4] TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language)

[5] An O (Ordinary)-level is a qualification for students, usually taken in their final year, at the age of fifteen or sixteen. You can take any number of O-levels, most students take up to nine O-levels after studying for two years in their chosen subjects. You also need to check that the O-level qualification you want is recognized by the institution where you want to study your A-level.

[6] An A-level is an Advanced level GCE qualification. This exam is normally taken by school leavers after two years of A-level study. You can take any number of A-levels; this will often depend on the qualifications that your chosen institution has asked for.

[7] B.A. (Bachelor of Arts) – бакалавр гуманитарных наук

[8] to be defrayed – которые нужно оплатить

[9] one is more likely to go on a spending spree – люди гораздо чаще покупают

[10] all one has to do by way of… - все, что им нужно сделать для…

[11] It is … that - именно

[12] of sorts – своего рода

[13] prime rate – банковская ставка для первоклассных заемщиков

[14] is after (smth) – стремится к

[15] pattern – схема

[16] keep up to date with – зд. следить за конъюнктурой рынка

[17] demise – зд. упадок


[18] go broke/go bankrupt – разориться ,обанкротиться


[19] it goes without saying – само собой разумеется

[20] for a while – какое-то время

[21] ins and outs – все тонкости

[22] he earned enough as it was – он и так хорошо зарабатывал

[23] to make both ends meet – сводить концы с концами

[24] to come up with - выдвигать, предлагать (идею)

[25] to be on one’s own – действовать самостоятельно, быть предоставленным самому себе

[26] This is all the process is about – В этом заключается весь процесс

[27] to say nothing of – не говоря уже о

[28] to gird oneself – страховаться, готовиться к неожиданностям

[29] dues – зд. взносы в фонд по безработице

[30] sideline – побочная работа

[31] deposit – зд. аванс, залог

[32] want ads – объявления о найме

[33] how come – как так происходит

[34] pattern - структура

[35] party involved – сторона, участвующая в процессе

[36] meant are – имеются в виду

[37] with cash on the barrel – заплатив всю сумму наличными

[38] to go under = to go bankrupt – обанкротиться

[39] this is the way – вот как

[40] promoting – продвижение (товара)

[41] to make smb interested in sth – заинтересовать кого-либо чем-либо

[42] to run out of – истощить свой запас

[43] a rain-check – чек, дающий право на приобретение товара в другое время

[44] never stop short of – никогда не останавливаются перед

[45] it’s not for nothing that – не зря

[46] mortgage – ипотечный кредит, залог, закладная

to borrow on mortgage – получать ипотечный кредит (т.е под залог имущества)

[47] mortgage payment(s) – выплаты по ипотечному кредиту

[48] not by a long short – далеко не

[49] all the same – всё же, всё равно

[50] when given a general outline – в общих чертах

[51] to put cash down – вносить наличными

[52] as if living off – как бы «проедая»

[53] history with malpractice suit – наличие судебных исков



The term "software" was first used in this sense by John W. Tukey in 1958. In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all computer programs. The theory that is the basis for most modern software was first proposed by Alan Turing in his 1935 essay “Computable(исчисляемые) numbers with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem”.

Computer software is so called to distinguish(различать) it from computer hardware, which encompasses(осуществлять, выполнять) the physical interconnections(соединения, связи) and devices required to store and execute (or run) the software.

Main software characteristics include:

  • Software is developed and engineered.
  • Software doesn't "wear-out"(износ).
  • Most software continues to be custom built.(по проекту заказчика)

Computer software or just software is a general term used to describe a collection of computer programs, procedures and documentation that perform(выполнять) some tasks on a computer system.

The term includes:

System software such as operating systems, which interface with hardware to provide the necessary services for application software. It includes a combination of the following:

· device drivers

· operating systems

· servers

· utilities

· windowing systems


The purpose of systems software is to unburden(облегчить) the applications programmer from the often complex details of the particular(разнообразный) computer being used, including such accessories as communications devices, printers, device readers, displays and keyboards, and also to partition the computer's resources such as memory and processor time in a safe and stable manner. Examples are - Windows XP, Linux and Mac.

Firmwarewhich is software programmed resident(постоянно) to electrically programmable memory devices on board mainboards(материнка) or other types of integrated hardware carriers(носитель).

Middleware which controls and co-ordinates distributed(распределенную) systems.

Programming software usually provides tools(инструменты) to assist(способствовать) a programmer in writing computer programs, and software using different programming languages in a more convenient(удобный) way.

The tools include:

· compilers

· debuggers

· interpreters

· linkers (редактор связей, компановщик)

· text editors

Application softwareallows users to accomplish(завершать) one or more specific (not directly computer development related) tasks. Typical applications include:

· industrial automation (промышленная автоматизация)

· business software

· computer games

· quantum chemistry(квантовая химия) and solid state physics (физика твёрдого тела) software

· telecommunications (i.e., the internet and everything that flows on it)

· databases

· educational software

· medical software

· military software

· molecular modeling software

· image editing

· spreadsheet (крупноформатная таблица)

· Word processing

· Decision making software

Software testing is a domain independent of development and programming. It consists of various methods to test and declare a software product fit(подгонка) before it can be launched for use by either an individual or a group. Many tests on functionality, performance and appearance are conducted by modern testers with various tools such as QTP, Load runner, Black box testing to edit a checklist of requirements against the developed code.

Testware which is an umbrella term or container term for all utilities and application software that serve in combination for testing a software package but not necessarily may be contribute to operational purposes. As such, testware is not a standing configuration but merely a working environment for application software or subsets thereof.

Softwareincludes websites, programs, video games, etc. that are coded by programming languages like C, C++, etc.

"Software" is sometimes used in a broader context to mean anything which is not hardware but which is used with hardware, such as film, tapes and records.


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