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GRAMMAR PRACTICE SECTION. 1. In a hypertext document, certain words within the text are marked as to other documents

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  1. B. Draw a parallel between the practice of new product development in different countries. Discuss their advantages and disadvantages.
  2. B. Practice the following conversation with a partner using the substitutions in the box.
  3. C. Practice introducing yourself, friends and groupmates. Remember to smile (and use handshakes where appropriate).
Contrasting clauses. 1. Match the sentences with the explanations.


1. In a hypertext document, certain words within the text are marked as to other documents. I couldn’t reach them, however. a. Although is used to introduce a contrasting clause. This is a second statement which contrasts with the first statement.
2. In spite of having her name and address in the Address Book I couldn’t find it. b. Though is used in speech and informal writing. In these contexts, the two clauses are often made into two sentences, and though is put at the end.
3. All the necessary documents were sent by e-mail, yet they didn’t receive them. c. Even though is used to emphasize the contrast.
4. Television keeps us informed about latest news. On the other hand, the Internet has the same function. d. While and whereas can often be used in formal speech and writing instead of although.
5. I used wire connection to the Internet although I had Wi Fi. Although I had Wi Fi, I used wire connection to the Internet. e. Despite is used to introduce a contrasting clause. It is always followed by a noun phrase, or the verbal form of the noun (-ing). It cannot be followed by a main verb.
6. While/whereas some experts expect quick development of the Internet in some countries but it doesn’t happen. f. In spite of is used to introduce a contrasting clause. It is always followed by a noun phrase, or the verbal form of the noun (-ing). It cannot be followed by a main verb.
7. I knew I had a lot of e-mails. I didn’t check my mail box, though. g. However introduces or completes a contrasting clause. However always has punctuation before and after. However is more common in formal speech and writing.
8. Even though I needed to contact him immediately I didn’t call him. h. The most common kind of contrast is made with but. But is often emphasized by expressions such as still, anyway and all the same.
9. Despite having several e-mail or newsgroup accounts, I work with all of them within one window. i. Yet can be used instead of but in formal speech and writing.
10. There were some problems with the Internet, but I managed to sent e-mails anyway. j. On the other hand introduces a contrasting opinion. It is usually used in formal speech and writing.


2. Put suitable words in each space.

1. The Internet is an extremely useful tool that has become an important part of our lives in the last few years, … it has some serious drawbacks.

2. … the Internet she relied on books as a research tool.

3. The Internet is an extremely useful tool, … there are those who points out that the Internet can make life more difficult too. 4. … a great amount of print editions, the internet is the only source of written information for many people. 5. …, the Internet has its drawbacks. 6. It was officially announced, that … the

Internet has some serious problems in the country, the amount of users is high rocketing.

7. It was quite costly to log onto and use the Internet. We decided to do it, … .

8. The Internet is a useful addition to our lives when it is used wisely. …, one shouldn’t forget to use books as well.

9. If people have a good experience with the Internet, they communicate easily. …, if the experience is negative, the result is opposite.

10. Mail.ru takes their adverts from Yandex and Rambler from Begun.ru, …they do offer banner advertising.

11. … spit has yet to bring a network down, security experts agree that it may be a problem in the future.

12. … the quantities of e-mail spam being higher in numbers, both spim and spit are seen as a more intrusive method of spam.

13. In the first half of 2005, sales of CD albums fell about 8.5% from 301.2 million during the first half of 2004 to 282.6 million units this year. …, legal music downloads rose by almost 3 times.

14. … the Chinese government attempts to block websites deemed undesirable, the information can still travel in China due to the “inherent characteristics” of the Internet by re-routing the information around the filters.

15. Internet and internet control are issues that are closely linked to matters of state power, privacy and in China’s case – democracy. …, the scope of this thesis is not to research whether the Internet will facilitate democracy in China.

16. …, in the past two to three years, studies that are more critical of the possibilities of Internet regulation started to appear in Western literature.

17. … Lessig’s theories have been attacked they still form a useful framework for the study of the internet and internet control in the People’s Republic of China.

18. Prying and curious eyes can prevent one from accessing material that is deemed offensive. …, users perceive more freedom while accessing the internet at an internet cafe.

19. Every day when I start my computer, connect to Internet and check my e-mail, I become really mad. I'm swearing and furiously pressing Delete. Usually people are more composed and show patience … I'm pretty sure they are also quite displeased. 20. There exist a lot of different spam control measures: from imprisonment and fines for

spammers to various spam-filters.

Still it does not help much. …, it is not so easy to catch and punish spammers and, …, it is difficult to protect oneself from them: spam passes through filters while important letters sometimes get stuck in them.


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