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VOCABULARY FOCUS




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  1. A) Draw a family tree for yourself and using the topical vocabulary explain the relationship between your immediate ancestors and any interesting facts about them.
  2. A. Study the topical vocabulary.
  3. A. Study the vocabulary from Exercises B, E.
  4. ACADEMIC VOCABULARY
  5. ACADEMIC VOCABULARY
  6. Active Vocabulary
  7. Active Vocabulary
  8. Appendix 3 Active vocabulary
  9. C. Study the topical vocabulary.
  10. DEVELOPING VOCABULARY

 

Ex. 1. Using a dictionary add as many words as possible into the table.

Verbs Adjectives Nouns
1. various  
2.   measure
3. purchase    
4. doubtful  
5. collect    
6. consider    
7. valuable  

 

Ex. 2. Choose the most suitable word or phrase underlined in each sentence.

1. I haven’t got enough money, I’m afraid. Could you borrow/lend me some?

2. It’s a good school, but the fares/fees are rather high.

3. This car is too expensive. We can’t afford/pay it.

4. It was a very good meal. Can we have the account/bill please?

5. There’s a small flat to hire/let in Bridge Street.

6. How much do you earn/gain in your new job?

7. She’s a good dentist, but she doesn’t charge/spend too much.

8. I bought this coat in the sales. It was decreased/reduced a lot.

9. Jack made his fortune/treasure buying and selling property.

10. How much do you reckon/value that house would cost?

 

Ex. 3. Find the words with the same meaning in the list given below

A) 1. to buy, to save, to recognize, to consider;

2. to acknowledge, to want, to purchase, to regard, to reserve, to search, to accumulate, to cost.

B) 1. modern, convenient, extraordinary, surprising;

2. astonishing, uncommon, contemporary, comfortable.

 

Ex. 4. Replace each word or phrase underlined with a word or phrase from the list which has the opposite meaning.

cash, generous, profit, save, well off, expensive, poverty, purchase, take out, worthless

1. I was surprised by how mean Charles was.

2. Janet says that she is very hard up at the moment.

3. Last year their business made a huge loss.

4. I’d like to pay in £100 please.

5. That part of Spain always seems very cheap to me.

6. Most people in the city live in great prosperity.

7. The manager insisted that I paid by cheque.

8. Some people manage to spend most of their money.

9. Joan was able to make only one sale during the morning.

10. The old painting I found in the loft turned out to be valuable.

 

Ex. 5. Study the meaning of the following words.



Value – worth, marketable price, estimation.

Cost – price to be paid for a thing.

Price – money for which a thing is bought or sold.

Fill in the gaps using the words given above.

1. He learnt the … of a friend. 2. The oil … are falling in the world – market. 3. The OPEC countries have agreed to reduce oil production to keep the … on the same level. 4. Synthetic materials have become cheaper, since the … of production are lower now. 5. The … of living has risen, whereas wages have remained the same. 6. The … of this information is enormous. 7. He set a high … on his time. 8. At Christmas sales one can buy goods at reduced … .

Ex. 6. Mind the use of the words price, rate, charge, fee and commissionwhich have certain similarities in meaning, but are not exactly the same.

1. The price is the amount of money you have to pay (usually for goods) in order to buy them:

What is the price of a car phone?

Share prices are quoted in the Financial Times.

1.1. Price is also a verb. If you price something you decide how much a purchaser will have to pay:

We’ve priced the new model at $1.300.



1.2. To price yourself out of the market is to offer your goods at such a high price that everyone will buy your competitors products:

If we don’t work to a lower profit margin we’ll be pricing ourselves out of the market.

 

2. The rate of interest or taxation is the percentage level:

Interest rates have stabilized at around 15%.

The basic rate of income tax on 1990 was 25%.

2.1. We can also refer to the rate of exchange (or exchange rate) of a currency:

Tourist exchange rates are published in most newspapers.

2.2. Rate can refer to an amount of something within a period of time.

The rate of unemployment fell in some European countries in the late 80s.

2.3. In insurance, the amounts charged to cover a risk are expressed as a percentage:

A rate of £ 1.75 per cent.

This means that you have to pay 1.75 for every 100 of the sum for which the goods are insured.

Rate can also indicate the speed or frequency at which something happens:

We’re losing skilled workers at the rate of three a month.

 

3. Charge is used mostly in the context of paying for services:

There will be a charge for confirming the letter of credit.

No extra charge is made for maintenance.

3.1. Charge is also a verb:

We charge for delivery. (=There is a delivery charge.)

The bank charged me 12% commission.

3.2. If something is charged to an account it is put on the bill for payment later:

Please charge the bar bill to my account.

3.3. Occasionally, services are free of charge.

You may use the telephone in your room free of charge.

 

4. A fee is payable for services provided by the legal profession, consultants, accountants, etc.:



In the US, a lawyer is paid a contingency fee which is a proportion of the damages granted by the court.

4.1. When permission is granted to use intellectual property there may be a fee. It is also possible to refer to a registration fee and a booking fee when a charge is made for a reservation.

 

5. A commission is a payment to an agent or middleman, calculated as a percentage of sales made:

5.1. Salesmen are often paid a fixed salary plus commission on sales made:

A higher commission increases the incentive to sell.

5.2. Commission is used as a synonym of charge in the context of banking:

There is a small commission/charge for handling standing orders.

 

Complete these sentences. Using the words above.

1. The American Bar Association has warned lawyers that their ______were getting so high that the profession might ______ itself out of the market.

2. Please pay the conference _______ directly to the Registrar.

3. As a salesman, the more _______ goods you sell, the more you make.

4. We were _______ £850 for repairs to the switchboard.

5. What is the _______ of an overhead projector?

6. We’re now producing the new model at the _______ of 100 a day.

7. There is a small _______ to cover handling costs.

8. A bear is a speculator who expects share _______ to fall.

9. The _______ of inflation is over 10%.

10. Could you _______ this to my expense account?

Ex. 7. Match each person from the list with a suitable description. Use each name once only.

accountant cashier heir manager agent customer investor miser swindler

1. Someone who likes to keep money and not spend it … .

2. Someone who inherits money or property … .

3. Someone who runs a bank … .

4. Someone who keeps or checks financial records … .

5. Someone who buys things in a shop … .

6. Someone who pays out money in a bank … .

7. Someone who represents others in business … .

8. Someone who puts money into a business … .

9. Someone who cheats people out of money … .

 

Ex. 8. Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence.

1. I bought these shoes in the sales. The were a real …

a) cheap b) economy c) bargain d) purchase

2. If you put your money in the bank, it will earn ten per cent … .

a) interest b) profit c) deposit d) investment

3. John asked his parents if they would pay off his … .

a) rents b) debts c) accounts d) credits

4. Adults have to pay £2.50 to get in, but children order 14 get in … .

a) free b) nothing c) penniless d) open

5. I’m interested in this old car. Is it …?

a) selling b) a sale c) to sell d) for sale

6. I’m trying to save for my holidays so I’m … some money each week.

a) putting in b) putting aside c) putting behind d) putting up

7. Just a minute! You’re forgotten to … your cheque!

a) mark b) make c) place d) sign

8. I like your typewriter. How much did it … exactly?

a) cost b) buy c) purchase d) sell

9. The black mailer asked for the money in used … .

a) notes b) cheques c) paper d) cash

10. I gave the assistant £10 and she gave me four pounds … .

a) rest c) money c) coins d) change


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