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B. Will you mark out the peculiarities of American and Japanese work management and fill in the following table (copy this table into your copybook).

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  2. A. Do pre-reading tasks before each abstract, then read and translate the abstracts about the basics of management.
  3. A. Role-play the following situation.
  4. A. Say whether the following statements are false or true.
  5. A. Study the following.
  6. American company having problems with their Finnish acquisition
  7. American Educational System
  8. American Political System
  9. Answer the following questions.
  10. Any topic in psychology can be approached from a variety of perspectives, thus there are many approaches in psychology. Match the following approaches with their descriptions.
Positions American management Japanese management
Staying with the firm    
Company loyalty    
Job security    

Text 4 What Are the Basic Accounting Theories?


A. While reading the text find answers to the following questions.

1) What are the basic accounting concepts supposed to underline?

2) What has the accounting profession developed the basic concepts for?

3) What is the basis for all financial accounting?

4) When can the accounting method be changed? When does it never take effect?

5) What does the going concern state?

6) What should be stated in the financial statements in any case?

7) What principle is applied to liabilities and not revenues? Why?

8) What kind of transactions has to be recorded?

9) What facts must.be disclosed in the financial statements?

The basic accounting theories are the basis and fundamental ideas, or assumptions, underlying the practice of financial accounting. These theories are a set of broad rules for all accounting activities and were developed over time by accounting professionals. The accounting profession has evolved and developed these basic concepts (theories) to standardize the way in which companies perform financial accounting in the United States.

The Accounting Formula

The basic accounting formula is: assets = liabilities + owner's equity. This basic equation is the formula and theory behind the double-entry accounting system. Every entry will have an offsetting entry to a corresponding asset, liability or owner's equity account. This is the basis for all financial accounting.

Accrual Concept

This concept states that all revenue transactions are recorded when they occur and not when the cash changes hands. This applies to revenue transactions that do and do not generate liabilities. The liabilities are also recorded when they occur and not when they are actually paid. Cash accounting, accounting for transactions only when the cash is paid or received, is not a theory and is used for small businesses without inventory.


This concept states that once a company chooses an accounting method, this method should be applied consistently over all future accounting periods. The accounting method can be changed if there is a valid business reason. Once the new method is adopted, the consistency concept is in place again. This new method will be followed for all future accounting cycles. Accounting method changes should never take effect in the middle of an accounting cycle.

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