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Определите, в каких из нижеприведенных предложениях присутствует оборот I типа, а в каких - оборот II типа. Предложения переведите

А 1) The prospect of having ten or twenty central banks and currencies seems absurd. 2) In addition to being a means of exchange, money is also a means of measuring the value of men's labour. 3) Instead of contacting a market maker for obtaining the shares, you may use the bank's advisory service. 4) Commercial banks are interested in being represented as the centres of foreign exchange operations. 5) Many companies look forward to making a profit from the goods and services which they sell. 6) These countries face (подвергаются) the danger of being left out of mainstream world economic developments. 7) In that case the banks may object to charging a rate of interest. 8) You must be absolutely certain that you will not be liable for the amount of your cheques in the event of their being stolen. 9) The financial institutions succeeded in buying bills at a discount rate, thus making a profit.

В 1) The manager has given a general introduction to currency options and their advantages before moving on to discuss some specific cases. 2) Some holders of bills look forward to having their money immediately. 3) Over the next few years we fully count on forward contracts being replaced by currency options. 4) The company relies on being paid a premium which gives it the right to demand purchase or sale of a specified currency. 5) Instead of moderating the contradictions, this factor aggravates them and contributes to plunging the economy into crisis. 6) Banks' officials may object to the granting of credit in case of a customer's insolvency. 7) Women object to being treated as if they were not the active participants of the conference. 8) If you prefer to buy or sell your shares without having to discuss every deal with the broker, you can do it easily.

Контрольные упражнения

(на повторение всего грамматического материала учебника)



1) When one has not what one likes, one must like what one has.

2) All progressive people demand that outstanding international issues be settled peacefully.

3) The Bank of England provides a wide range of services similar to those offered by commercial banks to their clients.

4) That the world was flat used to be an established fact.

5) This appointment is unlikely to improve the investment climate in Russia now rapidly going had.

6) Banking may be said to be the one industry on which all others depend for financial services.

7) This Republic favours long-term trade agreements (or these are believed to be more advantageous to both sides

8) In merchandise trade, the items with the most value added, such as microchips, are unlikely to be bought from suppliers that happen to be nearby.

9) It is only in the 1970s that the Arab East has really begun to be spoken of as a new factor in the world's affairs.

10) The banks were the main agency for the enormous task of issuing the new coinage intended to be put into circulation while introducing the new decimal currency system in Great Britain.

11) To clear off their foreign debts, they had to literally economize in everything.

12) In this country it would be ridiculous if there was not enough money to pay people with cash.





1) Self-starter is a person showing initiative and not needing others to make him work.

2) Those who wish to borrow money to buy their own homes are expected to find part of the purchase price and the bank will arrange mortgages to be repaid at regular intervals.

3) The first thing we had to do was to saturate our domestic market and maintain the balance between the quantity of goods and money.

4) Were the economic situation in the country satisfactory, there would be no increase in the cost of living there.

5) All the examinations having been passed at the Institute, the graduates were provided with jobs corresponding to their speciality.

6) Later, the growing monetary mass will result in a consumption boom, great borrowing bringing about costlier credits and inflation.

7) «Business is business» means that in financial and commercial matters one must not be influenced by friendship, pity, etc.


Text 1 Types of Organizational structures


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