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Контрольная работа 1
WHAT IS ECONOMICS?
It is difficult to give a full and accurate definition of economics, but it is possible to indicate what problems economists are interested in. They are the factors that affect prices of goods and services and also resources necessary to produce them. Economists are also interested in sellers' and buyers' behaviour in the market, in the relationship between "price system" and "market mechanism".
Now economics is more complex. There are three main approaches to economics: microeconomics, macroeconomics, and development economics. There are also several specialized areas of study. Among them are money economics, international economics, labour economics, industrial economics, agricultural economics, growth economics, mathematical economics, etc.
Like many other sciences, economics uses models to understand economic problems. A model often helps an economist to make correct predictions. The economist usually follows several rules1 when he makes a model of economic behaviour.
First, real life is complex and it is not possible for an economist to include all the details in a model. So, a model is an abstraction from real life. A model usually includes only essential elements and relationships of a particular economic situation.
Second, if an economist has two different models of one phenomenon2, he always chooses the model that predicts the results of a particular phenomenon more accurately.
Third, although models are helpful in economic analysis, an economist always studies the actual economic situation before he makes decisions.
It is not enough to make models, it is also necessary to collect and study actual data in order to know how accurate a model is.
Пояснения к тексту
1) to follow rules – следовать правилам;
2) phenomenon – событие, явление.
Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.
1. What problems are economists interested in?
2. What are the three main approaches to economics?
3. What specialized areas of economics do you know?
4. Why do economists use economic models?
5. Why is it not possible to include all the details in a model?
6. What does a model usually include?
7. Which of the models does an economist always choose?
8. Why is it necessary for an economist to collect and study actual data?
2. Заполните пропуски, используя слова под чертой (слова даны в нужной форме):
1. Trade ... well in this area.
2. It is necessary to have correct ... to make a correct decision.
3. He does not have ... money to ... a car.
4. Economists study the ... between prices of different goods in the ... .
5. The economist industrial economics.
6. The growth of industry and agriculture ... the life of all the people in the country.
Affects, data, relationship, market, develops, is interested in, enough, buy.
3. Переведите следующие словосочетания, образованные по схеме «существительное + существительное»:
Образец: market analysis – анализ рынка
Labour economics, labour market study, goods and services prices, growth economics problems, economic situation details, consumer behaviour, future prediction, growth mechanism, agriculture and manufacturing relationship, mineral resources prices, agricultural product price growth, area development, trade growth prediction.
4.Раскройте скобки, употребив глаголы в нужной форме.
1. Economists (to study) situations from real life by means of economic models.
2. Economists (to be) interested in relationship between prices for goods and buyers' behaviour.
3. The buyer (to choose) goods for which he (to have) enough money.
4. He (not/ to follow) our recommendations.
5. The manager (to make) decisions only after careful analysis of all the data.
6. She always (to buy) a lot of clothes.
7. The data (not/ to be) necessary now.
8. The prices for fuel (to be) very high.
9. A consumer (to be) a person who (to buy) goods and services.
10. There (to be) several mining areas in this country.
5. Соедините части предложений А и В и переведите предложения на русский язык:
1. Resources and labour are necessary
2. It is necessary to know marketing
3. It is not enough to study economic theory
4. Like other sciences, economics uses models
5. To buy goods and services it is necessary for a consumer
6. It is not always possible to predict
7. To have enough money for his
8. Development of trade
a) is essential for economic growth of a country.
b) the results of every phenomenon.
c) to produce goods.
d) to sell goods and services well.
e) to have enough money.
f) to be a good economist.
g) family he works a lot.
h) to analyze real life situations.
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