АвтомобилиАстрономияБиологияГеографияДом и садДругие языкиДругоеИнформатикаИсторияКультураЛитератураЛогикаМатематикаМедицинаМеталлургияМеханикаОбразованиеОхрана трудаПедагогикаПолитикаПравоПсихологияРелигияРиторикаСоциологияСпортСтроительствоТехнологияТуризмФизикаФилософияФинансыХимияЧерчениеЭкологияЭкономикаЭлектроника
Контрольная работа 2
Development economics is an important branch of economics which considers specific problems of Third World countries. These countries are given a variety of different names such as "underdeveloped countries", "less developed countries" (LDCs), and "developing countries" (DCs). All these terms contrast third world countries with first world countries which are called "developed" or "industrialized". Economies of Western Europe, North America, and Japan belong to this type.
The growth of Third World countries was especially great in the 1950s and 1960s. Most of these countries were a part of the colonial system and they were controlled by Western Europe. Many countries got political independence after World War II, but they have not become independent economically yet. For example, India has been an independent country since 1945.
The most advanced Asian and South American countries are sometimes called "newly industrialized countries" (NICs). Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea have reached a great success in the development of their light manufacturing industries recently. They have already greatly increased the exports of such goods as shoes, clothes, and electronics all over the world. Brazil and Mexico have also increased their share in the world market mainly by means of foodstuffs exports.
It is important to understand that Third World countries are not uniform. Each country has its economic problems, and it is necessary for each country to develop its own policy in order to make progress.
However, developing countries are distinguished from developed nations by the following common characteristics: lower average income per capita1; low labour productivity; low level of education; high mortality rate2; fast population growth; low living standards, etc. Some developing countries have all of these characteristics; others have only some of them.
Пояснения к тексту
1) per capita – на душу населения;
2) mortality rate – уровень смертности.
Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.
1. What problems does development economics study?
2. How are Third World countries named?
3. What countries are known as "developed countries"?
4. When was the fastest growth of Third World countries?
5. Are developing countries independent politically or economically?
6. What countries belong to "newly industrialized countries"?
7. Are all developing countries uniform in their development?
8. What are the common characteristics of all developing countries?
2. Составьте предложения из каждого набора слов:
1. The company, exported, to European countries, before, its, never, has, goods.
2. Such a high level, the NICs, as now, reached, in trade, never, have.
3. Their goods, to Africa, yet, exported, they, have?
4. Have, new machines, we, the productivity, already, increased, of.
5. Reached, most African countries, the living standards, have not, yet, of developed countries.
6. The European Union, Lithuania, a member of, recently, has become.
3. Заполните пропуски, используя слова под чертой (слова даны в нужной форме):
1. Brazil has recently increased the exports of ..., one of which is coffee.
2. As the education of … is not very good in developing countries, the … is low.
3. There is a wide … of problems which Third world countries have in their economics, but economic … is common for most of them.
4. This factory uses the most … technologies in processing agricultural products into foodstuffs.
5. He has been interested in the problems of development economics … he started work there.
6. Less developed countries are … from each other by means of analysis of their … income … capita.
7. Developing countries got political … more than 50 years ago, but they have not … a high level of living standards of developed countries.
8. Newly industrialized countries have … the productivity of light manufacturing industry … .
9. The development of different areas of the economy is not … . Some areas are more developed, others are less developed.
Labour productivity, uniform, since, foodstuffs, advanced, independence, variety, population, per, increased, distinguished, lately, average, reached, dependence.
Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово из предлагаемых в скобках вариантов.
1. Economies of Western Europe, North America, and Japan are (developing/developed) economies.
2. Third World countries are called (developing/developed) countries.
3. The most advanced Asian and South American countries are sometimes called ("newly industrialized countries"/"less developed countries").
4. Many countries became politically (dependent/independent) after World War II.
5. Brazil and Mexico have also increased their share in the world market mainly by means of (foodstuffs/clothes) exports.
6. (Developed/developing) nations have high mortality rate and fast population growth.
Дата добавления: 2015-01-01; просмотров: 56; Нарушение авторских прав