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SERGIY KOROLYOV (1907-1966)




1. Sergiy Korolyov is the outstanding Ukrainian scientist and designer in the field of cosmonautics and rocketry, founder of applied space exploration, chief designer of the first carrier rockets, artificial satellites and manned spacecraft.

2. His contribution to the world science is great. Korolyov succeeded in accomplishing during his lifetime what many generations of people had only dreamed about before. Korolyov's contribution to the development of rocketry is so great that he ranks second only to Tsiolkovsky.

3. At the end of thirties, his liquid-propelled rockets acquired a design that subsequently came to be regarded as classic. Using the experience gained at home and abroad, Korolyov and his team not only enriched the theory of technology but designed a number of rockets of a more advanced type in the stage of technological development.

4. In the early 1930s, Korolyov and his associates laid a foundation which enabled them later on, from 1946 through 1966, to carry out a tremendous scope of work at a breath-taking pace.

5. Epoch-making events in the human civilization are associated with the name of Academician Scrgiy Korolyov: the launching of Sputnik, the first artificial satellite, unmanned space flights to the Moon and Venus, and the unprecedented space flight of our countryman Yury Gagarin His creative work was crowned by the creation of powerful ballislic missiles for national security, unmanned space probes and spacecraft of various, purposes, even flights to the Moon, Venus and Mars.

6. Today space research gives us invaluable scientific information essential for fundamental natural studies, for the exploration of the Solar System's planets and remote objects in our Galaxy, and for the understanding of evolutionary process in the Universe. We obtain important information about the state of the atmosphere, mineral deposits found on other planets, enormous solar energy resources in outer space.

7. Special automatic instruments and vehicles are produced and sent to various parts of the Solar System - both to the earth's neighbours like Mars and Venus and further out to the peripheral planets

 

2

1 In what field is S. Korolyov famous?



2 Which of his inventions is regarded as classic?

3 What important evens are associated with the name of Sergey Korolyov?

4 What is Korolyovs most creative work ?

5 Where are special automatic instruments sent?

 

 

3 (+) (-)

1 S. Korolyov is famous for his work in physics

2 Korolyovs contribution to the development of rocketry ranks second after K. Tsiolkovsky.

3 In the period from 1946 to 1966 Korolyov and his teams work succeeded very slowly.

4 The first manned cosmic flight was possible due to Korolyovs unprecedented inventions.

5 the most significant Korolyovs work was in the field of chemistry.

 

4 1- -5- 7-

 

.

Model:

S. Korolyov was - When was S Korolyov born?

born in 1907. (When?)

 

1 S. Korolyov designed the first carrier rockets. (What?)

2 A lot of epoch- making events are associated with the name of Academician Korolyov. (With whose name?)



3 Yury Gagarin made his flight due to the work of Korolyovs team. ( Who?)

4 Korolyovs work deservs great respect because it laid the foundation to manned cosmic flights. (Why?)

5 We obtain important information about other planets due to Korolyovs inventions. (What?)

 

6 .

1 Special automatic instruments are sent to the earths neighbours like mars and Venus to the peripheral planets.

a) either or c) both and

b) neither nor d) such as

2. There a lot of important discoveries made by our scientists last year

a) is c) have bun

b) are d) were

3. S. Korolyov is one of the scientists in the field of cosmonautics.

a) more outstanding c) least outstanding

b) greater outstanding d) most outstanding

4. The scientific group a lot of work since last year.

a) has made c) will make

b) made d) make

5. Can you tell me about your latest results?

a) nothing c) something

b) anything d) somewhere.

7 , 䳺.

Model:

The scientists are discussing the new - The new methods of work of their

methods of work of their laboratory . laboratory are being discussed

by the scientists.

 

1. The sides have just achieved the agreement.- The greement

2. The teacher asked many questions

3. Miss Green teaches mathematics-Mathematics

4. The workers are restoring the old building.- The old building

5. The scientists sent the special automatic instruments to various parts of the Solar System.- The special automatic instruments

8 , .



1 Korolyov is one of the most outstanding scientists in the field of rocketry.

2.It was Korolyov and his associates who laid the foundation of rocketry.

3 The scientist had to work hard to finish their work in time.

4 Due to their great invention they were able to complete their work much faster.

5 Neither he nor his friend could find the answer to the question.

2

1 Albert Einstein (1879-1955

 

 

ALBERT EINSTEIN (1879 - 1955)

1. His Theory of Relativity was published in 1905. Einstein declared there was nothing absolutely at rest on the Earth or anywhere in the whole Universe. Everything is in motion from atoms to stars.

2. When one is on a moving train, the seats and passengers appear to be stationary while the trees appear to fly past the windows, A boy standing near live railway sees the train flying by while the trees stand motionless, As the train speeds on, the Earth goes round the Sun.

3. At the same time, the Earth, the Sun and the whole Solar System move together in the direction of a distant star. If a man could stand on the Sun and look through a telescope, he would see the Earth and-the train moving below.

4. And what about relativity of time? Newton had taught time was absolute. The world changes but time goes on and on unchanged. Einstein gives us a new picture. Time and space change relative to the position and speed of the observer. If we could travel with a speed close to the speed of light our clocks would slow down and show time different from the time, on the Earth. Not only clocks, but also our pulses, even the electrons inside the atom would move slower and slower.

5. The mass or weight of a body also depends on how fast the body is moving. As it moves faster and faster, it grows heavier and heavier.

6. Einstein gave an entirely new idea of the world we live in. All over the world scientists read the work with great surprise. In those days Einstein was an unknown patent office clerk in Bern. His fame grew slowly but surely. He was invited to work as a professor first in Prague and then n Zurich. In 1913 he was invited to the Academy of Sciences in Berlin. For his great contribution to theoretical physics he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921.

7. Einstein was a talented man, a great thinker. His ideas completely changed physics and produced a revolution in natural science of the twentieth century.

 

2

1 What did Einstein declare in his Theory of Relativity?

2 What does a person feel when he is on a train?

3 Who was sure that time was absolute?

4 How do time and space change?

5 Why do we know that Einstein was a great thinker?

 

3 (+) (-).

1 In his Theory of Relativity Edison stated that everything was absolutely at rest on the Earth .

2 Edison died in the second half of the twentieth century.

3 The weight depends on how fast the body moves.

4 Scientists were not surprised by Edisons ideas of relativity..

5 Edisons fame grew very fast.

 

4 1- -6-

 

Model:

Einstein was born in 1879. (When?) - When was Einstein born?

1 A man on a moving train feels stationary. (What?)

2 The Solar System moves in the direction of a distant star. ( In what direction?)

3 Edison was a talented man. (What kind of man?)

4 Edisons ideas produced revolution in natural Science in the twentieth century. (When?)

5 In 1913 Edison was invited to the Academy of Sciences in Berlin. (When?)

 

6

1 the seat . passengers appear to be stationary when one is on a moving train

a) either or c) both . and

b) neither . nor... d) such.. as

2 There a lot of people at the scientific society meeting last week

a) is c) have bun

b) are d) were

3 As the body moves . It becomes heavier

a) the most fast c) the faster

b) faster d) the fastest

4 Since that time scientists .. many proofs for the Theory of Relativity

a) have found c) found

b) has found d) have bun found

5 At those times . was know about relativity

a) something c) anything

b)nothing d) some thing

7 .

Model:

The engineers were discussing the new mode when the news came The new model was being discussed by the engineers when the news came.

- .

1 They have just received the goods.- The goods

2 The examiners asked me a lot of question- I .

3 The scientists found this theory very unusual.-This theory.-

4 The boy was painting the fence when I came .- The fence

5. Miss Evance will send a fax next week.- A fax

 

8 .

1 Einstein is one of the most talanted and greatest thinkers in the world.

2 It was the Theory of Relativity which surprised the scientific world.

3 Einstein had to work hard to grow from an unknown clerk into a great inventor.

4 The scientists of that time were not able to understand Einstens ideas of relativity.

5 His ideas both changer physics and produced the revolution science.

 

3

1 Isaak Newton (1643-1727)


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