:





IGOR KURCHATOV (1903-1960)




:
  1. Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov

1 Kurchatov was one of the most brilliant Russian scientists of our age. He was a distinguished atomic physicist, outstanding organizer of research work. He united the forces of great scientific institutions for solving the essential scientific problems. He was responsible for the development of atomic industry in the country. He made a great contribution to the development of atomic nucleus investigation.

2 Kurchatov graduated from the Crimea University, physics and mathematics department. In 1925 he went to Leningrad and joined the Physic Technical Institute of the Academy of Sciences.

3 In the early thirties atomic research was conducted in the Russia. Nuclear physics drew Kurchatov's attention in 1933. He headed a group of research workers. They were working at the problem of the development of powerful sources of fast particles inducing a nuclear reaction. Kurchatov launched the first cyclotron in Europe at the Radio Institute.

4 At the age scientific and technological revolution, power supply was one of the primary factors of progress. The search of new power sources was among the most important problems of modern science.

5 A great number of scientists in the world believed that the leadership scientific progress should belong to nuclear energy. Most of the great 20-th century discoveries were made on the border-lines of different sciences.

6 One of the problems Kurchatov worked at was the problem of mastering controlled thermonuclear reactions. The first industrial nuclear power station in the world put into operation in 1954 was his creation. Kurchatov always stressed that atomic energy should serve peace.

7 Kurchatov's knowledge and experience are immortalized in Beloyarskaya nuclear power plant, named after him, atomic ice-breaker Lenin, in the Dubna Institute and in numerous atomic installations built in our country and abroad.

2. :

1 In what field was Kurchatov famous?

2 What did he do as an organizer to solid the essential scientific problems?

3 When did Kurchatov turn his attention to nuclear physics?

4 Why was the search for new power sources the important problem at that time?

5 What kind of atomic energy uses did Kurchatov approve?



3. , (+), (-).

1 Kurchatov is most famous for his work in optics.

2 His greatest contribution is in the field of nucleus investigation.

3 Kurchatov didnt graduate from Leningrad University.

4 The problem power supply was not very significant in the first half of the twentieth century .

5 The state highly estimated Kurchatovs hard work and talent.

 

4. 1- 3- 5- 7- .

 

.

Model

Igor Kurchatov was born in 1903.(When?) - When was Igor Kurchatov

born?

 

1 Kurchatov united the forces of the leading scientists to solid the essential scientific problems. ( Why?)

2 He was responsible for the development of atomic industry in the country. (What?)

3 Kurchatovs scientific work deserves great respect of all progressive world. (What respect?)

4 The greatest achievements in nuclear physics are associated with the name of Igor Kurchatov. (With whose name?)

5 Kurchatov launched the first cyclotron in Europe at the Radio Institute. (Where?)



6. .

1 Kurchatov was a distinguished physicist an outstanding organizer.

a) neither; nor c) both; and

b) either; or d) so; as

 

2 There a lot of problems connected with energy sources at that time.

 

a) is c) has been

b) was d) were

3 At the age of scientific and technological revolution, power supply was one of factors of progress.

a) the most significant c) the significantest

b) the less significant d) the more significant

 

4 By 1954 Kurchatov and his group the ways of mastering controlled thermonuclear reactions.

a) have worked out c) worked out

b) had worked out d) were working out

5 Can you tell us about the peaceful uses of nuclear energy?

a) something c) any thing

b) nothing d) anything

 

7. , 䳺.

Model

The scientists are discussing The new methods of work are

the new methods of work - being discussed by the scientists

 

1 The group of researchers have just achieved some positive. Some positive results

2 Kurchatov headed a group of research workers. A group of research workers

3 When we came, the examiners were asking their questions. When we came the questions

4 This man organizes the research work at the department. The research work at the department

5 They made their discovery on the border line of different sciences. Their discovery

8. , .

1 The more brilliant a scientist, the more responsibility he has.



2 It was in 1954 when the first industrial nuclear power station was put into operation.

3 The researchers had to do their best to find some new power sources.

4 I dont believe they will be able to conduct this research in time.

5 The results of the research can be presented either at the exhibition or at the Trade Fair.

 

5

1.

 

MICHAEL FARADAY (1791-1867)

1.Michael Faraday's family was very poor. His father was a blacksmith. At the age of thirteen Michael's schooling ended, and he got a job with a bookseller. The bookseller was also a bookbinder. Michael bound and read many of them. These books taught him to think. He attended about a dozen of lectures features in natural philosophy and made his first acquaintance with Newton and other masters of science. He made notes of everything he heard, bound these notebooks himself and kept them all his life. He learned drawing, so that he might illustrate his notes with diagrams.

2.In 1813 Faraday was accepted as Sir Humphry Davy's assistant. After a few months of work in the laboratory, Sir Davy invited Faraday to go with him in his travels through Europe. Faraday made many acquaintances in the scientific world.

3.In 1815 he returned to England and worked in the laboratory in the Royal Institution for more than fifty years that is to the end of his days

4.Faraday succeeded in liquefying several gases by combining pressure and cold for the purpose. He produced several new kinds of optical glasses. His greatest chemical discovery was benzene, which he separated from oil gas, and which since then found world-wide application.

5.Faraday's attention was timed to the relation between magnetism and electricity. In 1821 he placed a wire carrying an electric current from a battery round the pole of a magnet. When the wire began to move he also danced round the revolving circuit, and his face was shining. Many years will pass before this discovery becomes the basis of the electric motor.

6.He first produced a current in a wire by a magnet. In 1831 he showed that an electric current can induce another current in a different circuit. This discovery of the induction of electric currents later became the basis of all modern electrical engineering. Faraday founded the Theory of electric and magnetic fields.

 

2. :

1 Why did Michael have to leave school at the age of thirteen?

2 What helped Michael learn to think?

3 How long did Faraday work in the Royal Institution?

4 In which way did Faraday produce benzene?

5 Which of Faradays discoveries became the basis of electrical engineering?

3. , (+), (-).

1 After leaving school Michael worked with his father.

2 Faraday made acquaintance with some masters of science reading their works in the library.

3 Faraday worked in the laboratory of the Royal institution practically all his life.

4 Faraday was greatly interested in magnetism.

5 Faraday was the founder of the Theory of electric and magnetic fields.

4. c 1- 5- .

.

Model

Michael Faraday was born in 1791. (When?) - When was Faraday born?

 

1 The books taught Faraday to think. (What?)

2 In 1813 Faraday was accepted as sir Hamphry Davys assistant. (When?)

3 Faradays research deserves great respect of all scientific world. (What respect?)

4 The Theory of electric and magnetic fields is associated with the name of Faraday. (With whose name?)

5 Many years will pass before his discovery becomes the basis of the electric motor. (How long?)

6. .

1 Faraday was especially interested in electricity magnetism.

a) neither nor c) so as

b) both and d) eitheror

2 There several new kinds of optical glasses that Faraday produced.

a) is c) has been

b) was d) are

3 His discovery of benzene is one of the discoveries.

a) most significant c) significantest

b) more significant d) least significant

4 He a current in a wire by a magnet by 1831.

a) has produced c) produced

b) was produced d) had produced

5 The family was poor and Michaels Father could do but take his son from school.

a) nothing c) anything

b) everything d) something

7. , 䳺.

Model:

 

The scientists are discussing - The new methods of work are

the new methods of work being discussed by the scientists

 

1 The books taught Michael to think. Michael

2 The researches have just finished the experiment. The experiment

3 The drawing illustrates the rule. The rule

4 The student were reading the text when the bell rang. The text

5 The magnet produced electric current in the wire. Electric current

 

8. , .

1 The most brilliant research by Michael Faraday is his theory of electric and magnetic fields.

2 It was Faraday who gave explanation of electric induction.

3 Separating gas from oil, he was able to discover benzene.

4 Faraday had to interrupt his schooling to help earn money for the family.

5 He both made notes of everything he heard at the lectures and illustrated them with diagrams.

6

1.

MARIE CURIE

1 Marie Sklodovska Curie is the outstanding Polish scientists whose discoveries in physics and chemistry began the era of the utilization of atomic energy. She was born in Warsaw and learned her first lessons of science from her father , a school teacher. Her ambition was to study at the Sorbonne in Paris and she went there in 1891.

2 In Paris she had to work hard for two Masters digrees in Physics and Mathematics. But she never complained : she had chosen her course and nothing could turn her from it.

3 In Paris Marie met her future husband Pierre Curie. Having the similar interests, Marie and Pierre understood each other perfectly and soon got married and formed one of the greatest scientific partnerships in the world.

4 For some time Pierre and Marie Curie had been interested in the work of a French scientist Becquerel, according to whom there is a rare metal uranium which emits rays similar to X-rays. These rays made marks on a photographic plate when it was wrapped in black paper. The investigation of these rays was the first step to the discovery of the phenomenon of radioactivity.

5 Marie Curie began to examine every known chemical body. As a result she found that a mineral called pitchblende () emitted much more powerful rays than any she had yet found. The only explanation for those powerful rays was that pitchblende contained some new unknown element.

6 The property of giving out such rays the called radioactivity and M. Curie called the new element radium because it was more strongly radioactive than any known metal.

7 In 1903 Marie and Pierre together with Henry Becquerel were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. In 1911 Marie alone received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, because in 1906 Pierre died tragically in a traffic accident.

2. :

1 Why did Maria leave Poland?

2 What field of science is Marie Sklodovska Curie most famous in?

3 What was the result examining chemical bodies?

4 What is radioactivity?

5 How many times was Marie Curie awarded the Nobel Prize.

 

3. , (+), (-).

1 Marie Sklodovska was never married.

2 She got her education in the university of Warsaw.

3 The Curies worked together with Henry Becquerel.

4 In the course of examining different substances Marie discovered the phenomenon of induction.

5 Pierre and Marie Curie were awarded two Nobel Prizes.

 

4. 1- 5- .

 

5. .

Model:

Marie Sklodovska - Curie was born in 1867(When?) When was Marie . Sklodovska - Curie born?

 

1 She had to work hard for two Masters degrees. (How hard?)

2 The rays made marks on a photographic plate. (Where?)

3 In 1903 Marie and Pierre Curie were awarded the Nobel Prize. (Who?)

4 Uranium emits the rays similar to X-rays . (What kind of rays?)

5 There were many interesting subjects Marie was interested in. (How many interesting subjects?)

 

6. .

1 Marie was interested in . Physics . Chemistry.

a) either or c) soas

b) bothand d) neither nor

2 There . some scientists who were critical about Marie Curies work.

a) has been c) were

b) was d) had been

3 The Curies were one of the . scientific partnerships.

a) great c) greater

b) most great d) greatest

4 By that time Pierre and Mary . the Nobel Prize.

a) received c) had received

b) had been received d) were received

5 Could . turn Marie from the course she chose.

a) any thing c) something

b) anything d) nothing

7. , 䳺.

Model:

The scientists are discussing - The new methods of work are

the new methods of work being discussed by the scientists

 

1 Her father taught Marie physics and chemistry . Marie

2 Pierre and Marie were discussing the problem when the light went down. The problem

3 Uranium emits rays similar to X-rays. Rays similar to X-rays .

4 The engineers have just discussed the problem. The problem

5 The scientist called this property radioactivity. This property

 

8. , .

1 He both made notes of everything he heard at the lectures and illustrated them with diagrams.

2 Due to their hard work they were able to complete the project much faster.

3 It was in 1954 when the firstindustrial nuclear power station was put into operation.

4 Her parents understood very well that their daughter should be sent to Paris.

5 Einstein is one of the greatest and most talented thinkers in the world.

 

7

1. Alfred Nobel (1833 - 1896)

ALFRED NOBEL (1833 1896)

1. Alfred Nobel, the great Swedish inventor, was a man on many of contrasts. He was the son of a bankrupt, but became a millionaire. He made a fortune but lived a simple life; a patriotic son of his native land, he died in a foreign country. He invented a new explosive, dynamite, to improve the peaceful industries of mining and road building, but saw it used as a weapon of war. World famous for his works, he avoided publicity and was never personally well-known. However, since his death, his name has brought fame and glory to others.

2. He was born in Stockholm in 1833 but moved to Russia with his parents in 1842. After his father, a successful engineer himself, suddenly went bankrupt, the family went back to Sweden. In Stockholm Alfred began his private study of explosives in his fathers laboratory. He had never been to school or university, but by the age of 20 he was a skillful chemist and excellent linguist who had mastered many foreign languages. Alfred had better luck in business than his father and showed more financial since. This greatness lay in his outstanding ability to combine the qualities of an original scientist with those of a forward-looking industrialist.

3. But Nobel was never really concerned about making money. Probably because he could not find ordinary human love, he began to care about the whole mankind. His greatest wish was to see an end to wars and he spent much time and money working for this cause. His famous will, in which he left money to provide prizes for outstanding work in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, Medicine, Literature and Peace, is a memorial to his interests and ideals.

4. According to Nobels will the capital was to be safely invested to form a fund the interest of which is to be distributed annually in the form of prizes to those who during the previous year has done work of the greatest use to mankind.

5. In his will Nobel wrote that it was his firm wish that in choosing the prize winner no consideration should be given to the nationality of the candidates. Since Nobels death many outstanding scientists, writers and public figures from different countries have become Nobel Prize Winners.

 

2. .

1. Why is Alfred Nobel considered a man of contrasts?

2. What was the purpose of inventing dynamite?

3 What education did Nobel have?

4 Who showed more financial sense. Nobel or his father?

5. What did he do with the money he had earned?

 

3. (+), (-).

 

1. Alfred Nobel was a son of millionaire..

2.He dreamed to invent dynamite for peaceful uses.

3. Nobel made his greatest invention in Russia.

4. Alfred was more successful in business than his father.

5. He left his money to provide prizes for outstanding work in mathematics.

4. 1 3 .

Model:

Alfred Nobel was born in 1833 (When?) - When was Alfred

Nobel born?

1. Nobels name has brought fame and glory to other. (What?)

2. His father went bankrupt so the family had to go back to Sweden. (Why?)

3. Alfred had a better luck in business than his father. (What luck?)

4. His greatness lies in his ability to combine the qualities of a scientist

with those of a successful industrialist. (Where?)

5. A person of any nationality can complete for the Nobel prize. (Who?)

 

6. .

1. A Nobel was ambitious famous.

a) either or c) neither nor

b) or or d) both and

2. He had luck in business than his father.

a) better c) good

b) the better d) the best

3. There a lot of arguments about the use of dynamite since it was invented.

a) is c) had been

b) have been d) were

4. Before the family went back to Sweden Alfreds father bankrupt..

a) had gone c) went

b) has gone d) had been gone

5. In choosing the prize winners the commission doesnt give consideration to the nationality.

a) some c) sits

b) no d) any

 

7. ,

䳺.

Model:

The scientists are discussing - The new methods of work are

the new methods of work. being discussed by the scientists.

 

1.A. Nobel invented dynamite the fence when A came. -Dynamite

2. His name has brought fame and glory. - Fame and glory

 

3.The boy was painting the fence when I came.- The fence

 

4.Mister Simpson will send a fax as soon as possible. - A fax

5.These people organize the research work at the department. - The research work

 

 

8. , .

1. Alfred Nobel was neither famous nor happy in his personal life.

2. It was in 1842 when the family moved to Russia.

3. Her parents understood very well that their daughter should be sent to

Paris.

4. He both made notes of everything he heard at the lectures and illustrated

them with diagrams.

5. The most outstanding research by Michael Faraday is his theory of

electric and magnetic fields.

 

8

1. Alexander Grahem Bell (1847)

ALEXANDER GRAHEM BELL (1847)

1. Alexander Graham Bell was born in Edinburgh in 1847. His father was a world-famous teacher of speech and the inventor of a system which he called "Visible Speech". It helped deaf persons to pronounce words they could not hear. Alexander chose the same profession, and as his father became a teacher of the deaf, he moved to the United States and began to teach deaf children to speak. At the same time he worked at improving his father's invention.

2. In 1866, the nineteen-year-old Bell started thinking about sending tones by telegraph. It was then that there came to his mind the idea of the harmonic telegraph, which would send musical tones electrically from one place to another. Bell was not a scientist. So he had to give all his energy and time to one thing only - knowledge of electricity. There was little time for rest and little time to eat. Hour after hour, day and night he and his friend Watson worked at testing and experimenting with the telephone. Sometimes it worked and sometimes it did not.

3. At last the friends decided to try a new king of transmitter. And this time it worked. It was on the 10th of Match, 1876 when Alexander Bell invented the telephone.

4. In a few years there were telephones all over the world. In 1915, the first transcontinental telephone line was opened. Graham Bell, a very old man now, sat in New York at a desk with a telephone before him, while his friend Watson was listening more than three hundred thousand miles away in San Francisco. People prepared to listen to a very serious speech Bell would give. But suddenly they heard his clear voice as he spoke into his old transmitter: Mr. Watson, come here. I want you. These were just the worlds Watson had pronounced during the successful test of the telephone in 1876. Much to the amusement of the people Watson answered, I would be glad to come, but it would take me a week.

5. We can hardly imagine our life without telephone nowadays. This kind of communication has changed in size and become much more sophisticated. But the basis was laid in 1876.

 

2. .

1. What device did Alexanders father invent?

2. When did the idea of sending musical tones electrically?

3. How hard did Bell have to work at his experiments with the telephone?

4. When was the first transcontinental telephone line put into operation?

5. How has telephone communication changed since 1876?

 

3. (+), (-).

1. Alexander Graham Bell comes from Ireland.

2. He made his greatest inventions living in Great Britain.

3. Bell worked at his experiments with telephones together with his friend .

4. Bell was in San Francisco when the first transcontinental telephone line was being put into operation.

5. Telephone communication has become more sophisticated since it was first opened.

4. 1 4 .

Model:

A. Bell was born in 1817. (When?) When was A. Bell born?

1. Alexanders father invented the system called visible speech.(What?)

2. Bell had to give all his energy to knowledge of electricity because he was not a scientist. (Why?)

3. There were lots of telephones all over. The world in a few years. (How many?)

4. Bells invention deserves great respect of all scientific world. (Whose?)

5. Telephone communication has changed greatly nowadays. (How?)

 

6. .

1. In the United States Bell taught deaf children to speak worked at improving his fathers invention.

a) neither nor c) as as

b) either or d) both and

2. Since 1876 the telephone greatly.

a) has changed c) is changed

b) had changed d) was changed

3. He had very time for rest and eat.

a) less c) little

b) the least d) many

4. Bell was not a scientist, so he could do but work very hard to achieve success.

a) anything c) something

b) nothing d) any thing

5. Watson listened carefully while he in San Francisco.

a) had been sitting c) sits

b) was sitting d) is sitting

7. ,

䳺.

Model:

The scientists are discussing - The new methods of work are

the new methods of work. being discussed by the scientists.

1. Alexanders father invented a new system of pronunciation for dead people . - A new system of

2. Bells invention of telephone has changed peoples life. - Peoples life

3. They were testing their new device at that moment .- Their new device

4. The exception illustrates the rule. - The rule

5. They opened the first transcontinental telephone line in 1995. -The first transcontinental

8. , .

1. The invention of telephone is one of the most brilliant discovery in the history of mankind.

2. It was Alexanders father who invented a new system for deaf people.

3. Bell had to work much harder than other inventors.

4. Due to this invention they will be able to complete their work very soon.

5. People could hear the first conversation on the telephone both in New York and San Francisco.

9

1. Pyotr Kapitsa

PYOTR KAPITSA

1) Pyotr Kapitsa made his appearance in physics at the beginning the twentieth century. He was the son of a general, prominent engineer who had built the renowned Kronstadt fortress. While at a technical high school (he had been expelled from the classic school for poor academic progress) Pyotr was keenly interested in physics. Technical high school graduates had no right to enter a university, so Kapitsa became a student of the electromechanical department of Petersburgs Polytechnical Institute the best technical educational establishment in Russia at the time.

2) In 1921, there of the most prominent scientists Joffe, Academician Krylov and Kapitsa were sent abroad to establish scientific contacts. Kapitsa who, was only twenty seven then, drew universal attention at the world-famous Cavendish Laboratory headed by Ernest Rutherford, the founder of experimental nuclear physics. The young physicist established an unusual, almost incredible record he completed the laboratory course in two weeks instead of the usual two years. After that Rutherford took personal interest in him and Kapitsa became his favourite pupil.

3) In 1934 Kapitsa returned home and was appointed Director of the Institute of Physical Problems. In the war years he devoted all his talent of a scientist and an engineer to the cause of the countrys defense.

4) After the was tears, Kapitsa ventured into an entirely new field of science and technology high power electronics. It is common knowledge nowadays that electronics means small currents. Kapitsa offered a convincing mathematical substantiation of the fact that electrons are capable of transmitting kilowatts-thousands and millions of kilowatts of energy.

5) Today Kapitsas high-power electronics has become firmly established. It has a fantastic future when rivers of electric power will flow along endless pipes waveguides. Using waveguides it will be possible to pour electric power directly into blast and open hearth furnaces, to send it in penciled becomes to Earth satellites and orbital stations in space.

6) Pyotr Kapitsas name speaks for itself. In the history of physics there are

few names that can be placed next to it.

 

2. .

1. Why was Kapitsa expelled from the classic school?

2. Why did he have to enter Polytechnical institute?

3. Who was he sent abroad with?

4. What record did Kapitsa establish abroad?

5. What purpose did Kapitsa devote himself to during the war years?

 

3. (+),

(-).

1. Pyotr Kapitsa didnt finish the classic school.

2. Before the way years Kapitsa got interested in high-power electronics.

3. He gave proofs of the fact that electrons are capable of transmitting energy.

4. Electronics deals with small currents.

5. Kapitsa made great contribution in the development of machine building..

4. 1 4 .

Model:

Kapitsa was interested in physics (What?) - What was Kapitsa interested in?

1. Kapitsa become a student of Petersburgs Polytechnical University . (What?)

2. Three prominent students were sent abroad to establish scientific contact. (Why?)

3. Electronic means small currents. (What?)

4. There are many field where high-power electronics can be used.. (How many?)

5. High-power electronics has greatly changed the modern technology. (How?)

 

6. .

1. In the Cavendish laboratory Kapitsa established an unusual record completing the course in two weeks become Rutherfords favourite pupil.

a) as as c) either or

b) both and d) neither nor

2. High-power electronics ... our life greatly recently.

a) change c) has changed

b) changed d) have changed

3. Loffe, Krylove and Kapitsa were young scientists at the beginning of the 20th century.

a) most prominent c) the most prominent

b) prominent d) have changed

4. He knew that in the future electronics change the technology radically.

a) can c) will be able to

b) is able to d) would be able to

5. Did doubt the significance of his discovery?

a) nobody c) anybody

b) somebody d) something

 

7. , 䳺.

Model:

The scientists are discussing - The new methods of work are

the new methods of work. being discussed by the scientists.

1. Pyotr kapitsas father designed the Kronstadt fortress. - The Kronstadt

fortress

2. High-power electronics has already changed the modern technology.

 

The modern technology

 

3. The researchers can use this device in their experiments.-

 

This device

 

4. They are testing the properties of these insulators now.

 

The properties

5. The young physicist surprised his professors. - His professors

 

8. , .

1. Due to their invention they will be able to increase the labour

productivity .

2. It was Rutherford who appreciated Kapitsas talent first.

3. Marie Curie had to work much harder than other students.

4. Neither Newton nor anyone else could make the right conclusions to

prove his theory.

5. His parents understood that he should be sent abroad to get education.

10

1.

THOMAS EDISON

1. Thomas Edison who lived and worked in the United States of America In the second half of the 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries was one of the greatest inventors of the word.

2. When he was a boy nobody thought that he might become an inventor. At school he always asked his teachers a lot of questions and they thought of him as of not a vary bright boy. After three months at school his teachers told his mother that he was one of the worst pupils of the school. This made Edison's mother take him from the school and teach him at home herself. She soon discovered that he was curious to everything concerning nature of different things and especially mechanisms and technical devises. She saw that every day Thomas became more and more interested in science and began teaching him everything She know about chemistry and electricity. During the years of his studies at home Edison read an unusually great number of books.

3. Edison began his experiments when he was eleven. He devoted almost all his time to science and experiments. He spent only four hours of twenty four on sleep.

One day on his way home Edison bought some book by Faraday. In simple words the books told him the story of that great scientist's experiments. The morning found Tom still reading the book. Than he realized that life was so short and he had so much to do.

4. At the age of twenty-two, Edison wont to New-York where he devoted all his time to inventions. He organized several laboratories where hundreds of assistants helped him in his work.

5. In 1869 he was a telegraph operator he took a patent for automatic telegraph system and electric pen. Then he invented the telephone transmitter. The invention of phonograph also belongs to Edison. But his most important invention, which he did in 1878, was the electric lamp. He also invented dynamo and many other electrical devices. In 1887 he transformed the kinetoscope into the moving picture machine.

6. You can understand his greatness as an inventor from the fact that he patented as many as 1200 inventions.

 

2.

1. Where is Tomas Edison from?

2. Did he show his abilities of an inventor in his early years?

3. Why did his mother have to take him from the school?

4. Which of the scientists played the most important role in Edison's future life?

5. What are Edison's most significant inventions?

3. , (+), (-).

1. Thomas's poor health made his mother take him from the school.

2. In his childhood Thomas was interested in mechanisms and devices.

3. He never spent more than four hours on his experiments.

4. Edison is the inventor of telephone transmitter.

5. His most significant invention is phonograph

4. 1-4 .

.

Model

Thomas Edison was born in Where was Tomas Edison

the United State of America (Where?) born?

 

1. Edison patented about 1200 inventions (How many?)

2. Edison's invention of the electric lamp has improved the quality of our life. (What?)

3. He had to work hard to hut his ideas to life. (How hard?)

4. The invention of phonograph belongs to Edison. (Who?)

5. There were about 1200 inventions that he patented. (How many?)

6.

1. Edison Lived in the second half of the 19th in the first half of the 20th century.

a) both and c) either or

b) as as d) or or

2. He realized that life was short oven to put to life his ideas.

a) the most important c) important

b) most important d) the importantest

3.There many things Edison was interested in his childhood

a) is c) were

b) have been d) are

4. By the year 1878 he many devices

a) intended c) were invented

b) was invented d) had invented

5. . could distract him from work: he devoted all his time to experiments.

a) anything c) something

b) nothing d) some thing

7. , 䳺

 

Model:

The scientists are discussing - The new methods of work are

the new methods of work. being discussed by the scientists.

 

1. Edison invented the electric lamp.The electric lamp

2. The electric lamp has changed the quality of our lifeThe quality of our life

3. They were making the experiment when the bell rang The experiment

4. Computer technology can solve a lot of business problems. A lot of business problems

5. His mother taught him at home. He

8. ,

1. It was Faraday who influenced Edison's curiosity most.

2. In spite of some difficulties the group of researchers were able to complete the project in time.

3. Neither friends not books could distract him from his work.

4. His mother had to take him from the school to teach him at home.

5.The move he experimented the move interesting things he discovered.

11

1.

 

ERNEST RUTHERFORD

1. Ernest Rutherford was born in 1871 in New Zealand in the family of English settlers . His father earned his living by bridge building and other construction work required in the country at that time. At the same time he carried on small-scale farming.

2. Ernest was the fourth child in the family. At school he liked to read and to make models of different machines, especially of watches and cameras. He was also very good at physics, mathematics and chemistry. At 19 he entered the New Zealand University. Ernest was one of the most talented students. He studied much and took an active part of the Scientific Society of the University. At one of it's meetings he made the scientific report The evolutions of Elements. At the same time he began his research work. After graduation Rutherford went to Cambridge where he continued his investigations.

3. Some years later Rutherford moved to Canada to continue his research at the University of Montreal. Besides he lectured a lot at the leading Universities of the United States and England.

4. Rutherford's famous work The Scattering of alpha and Beta Particles of Matter and the Structure of the Atom proved that the atom could be bombarded so that the electrons could be thrown off, and the nucleus it self could be broken. In the process of splitting the nucleus matter was converted into energy which to the scientist of the 19th century seemed to be impossible.

5. The splitting of atom has opened to man a new and enormous source of energy. The most important results have been obtained by splitting the atom of uranium. At present we are aware of the application of atomic energy and the possible uses for peaceful purposes in power engineering, medicine and agriculture.

6. Ernest Rutherford paid much attention to his young pupils. After 1920 he did not make significant discoveries in science, but taught young scientists who worked in the field of atomic research work. A many his favorite pupils was Pyotr Kapitsa.

7. Ernest Rutherford died in the autumn of 1937 at the age of 66, and was buried at Westminster Abbey not far from the graves of Isaak Newton, Charles Darvin and Michael Faraday .

2.

1. What were Ernest's interests at school?

2. Where did he get higher educations?

3. What facts prove that Rutherford was not an ordinary student?

4. Why is the splitting of atom important?

5. What are the most significant uses of atomic energy?

3. , (+),

(-).

1. Ernest was the only child in the family.

2. He showed his talents as far back as his university years

3. He was a brilliant lecturer.

4. The period after 1920 was the most fruitful period in Rutherford's scientific career.

5. One can find Rutherford's grave in New Zealand.

4. 1-4 .

.

Model:

Ernest Rutherford was born in Where was Ernest Rutherford born?

New Zealand (Where?)

 

1. His father erned his living by bridge building. (How?)

2. He was good at physics, mathematics and chemistry. (What subjects?)

3. Rutherford had to move to Canada to continue his research. ( Why?)

4. The splitting of atom has opened to man a new source of energy. ( What?)

5. His grave can be seen at Westminster Abbey. (Where?)

6.

1. Rutherford could .. stay in New Zealand .. move to Canada to continue his research.

a) neither.nor. c) as.as.

b) such.as. d) either..or.

2. There.. some scientists who were critical about Rutherford discoveries.

a) was c) have been

d) were d) had been

3. Ernest Rutherford is .. scientists of all times.

a) the most distinguished c) one of the most distinguished

b) one of the more distinguished d) more distinguished

4. The promising results . by splitting the atom of uranium.

a) have been obtained c) had to be obtained

b) had been obtained d) obtained

5. Can you show me .. of your latest results

a) something c) anything

b) some d) any

7. , 䳺

Model:

The scientists are discussing - The new methods of work are

the new methods of work. being discussed by the scientists

 

1. He made models of watches and camerasModels of watches and

cameras

2. They must use atomic energy for peaceful purposes Atomic energy

3. Alfa particles bombarded atoms. Atoms

4. Scientist have paid much attention to teaching pupils Teaching

pupils.

5. Uranium emits rays similar to x-rays Rays similar to x-rays.

 

8. ,

1. Rutherford both carried out research and lectured

2. It was Rutherford who discovered x-rays.

3. The scientists had to work hard to complete their work in time.

4. Neither he nor his pupils could give the answer.

5. Due to his great invention he was able to prove his idea.

 

12

1.

BILL GATES (1955)

1. William (Bill) Gates is chairman and chief software architect of Microsoft employs more than 30 000 people in 60 countries.

2. Born on October 28, 1955, Gates and his sisters grew up in Seattle. His father is a Seattle attorney. Their late mother was a schoolteacher, University of Washington regent and chairwoman of united Way International.

3. At school Gates discovered his interest in software and began programming computers at the age of 13.

4. In 1973. Gates entered Harvard University. While at Harvard, Gates developed a version of programming language BASIC for the first microcomputer. In his junior year , Gates left Harvard to devote his energies to Microsoft, a company he had begun in 1975 with his friend Paul Allen.

5. Guided by a belief that the computer would be a valuable tool on every office desktop and in every home. They began developing software for personal computers. Gates foresight and his vision for personal computing have been central to the success of Microsoft and the software industry.

6. Microsoft mission is to advance and improve software technology, to make it easier, less expensive and more enjoyable for people to use computers.

7. In 1999, Gates wrote Business @ the Speed of Thought, a book that shows how computer technology can solve business problems in fundamentally new ways. Gates has donated the proceeds of his book to non-profit organizations that support the use of technology in education

8. In addition to his love of computers and software, Gates is interested in biotechnology. He is an investor in a number of biotechnology companies. Gates is an avid reader, and enjoys playing golf and bridge.

 

2.

1. What is Bill Gates famous for?

2. How old was Gates when he began programming computers?

3. Did he graduate from the University?

4. What are the aims of Microsoft?

5. What are Bill Gate's other interests?

3. , (+), (-).

1. Bill Gates is The founder of the first computer

2. Being a school student Gates developed a version of BASIC

3. Gates and his companion Paul Allen have never doubted the significance of computers for business.

4. Gates has given the proceeds of his book Business @ the Speed of Thought to schools of higher education.

5. Gates takes great interest in genetics.

4. 1-6 .

.

Model:

Bill Gates was born in 1955 (When?) When was Bill Gates born?

1. Bill Gates is the founder of Microsoft (Who?)

2. At the age of 13 he began programming computers. (What?)

3. His book Business @ the Speed of Thought shows many ways of sing computers for solving business problems. (How many?)

4. He invested some money in a number of biotechnology companies (Where?)

5.Gates vision for personal computing caused the success of Microsoft. (Whose?)

6.

1. B. Gates Enjoys. golf. Bridge.

a)either.or. c) bothand

b)as.. as. d) neithernor

2. The.. belief Gates has is that the computer has is that the computer has great future.

 

a) most strong c) stronger

b) strongest d) more stronger

3. There . Many things Gates is interested in besides programming

a) has been c) is

b) will be d) are

4. The version of BASIC . By Bill Gates

a) has been developed c) is being developed

b) has developed d) had been developed

5, Can change Gates devotion to computers?

a) something c) nothing

b) anything d) some thing

 

7 , 䳺

Model:

The scientists are discussing - The new methods of work are

the new methods of work. being discussed by the scientists

 

1. Bill Gates founded Microsoft Microsoft.

2. Microsoft employs more, than 30 000 people. More than 30 000 people.

3. Microsoft has developed numerous computer programs Numerous computer programs

4. Computer technology can solve a lot of business problems in new ways A lot of business problems

5. They were translating the instruction when the bell rangThe instruction

8.. ,

1. It is Paul Allen who has always shared Gates ideas.

2. In spite of some obstacles the group of engineers were ableto complete the project much faster.

3. Neither he nor his numerous colleagues could find the answer to the question.

4. Faraday had to interrupt his schooling to help earn money for his family.

5. The more brilliant a scientist, the more responsibility he has

 


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