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ISAAK NEWTON (1643 1727 )




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  1. Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727)
  2. Newton's laws of motion

2. Newton was born in the year in which Galileo died. At school he was a strange boy, interested in constructing, mechanical devices of his own design, curious about the world around him, but showing no signs of unusual brightness. He seemed to be rather slow in his studies in his teens.

3. In the late 1650s he was taken out of school to help on his mother's farm, where he was clearly the world's worst farmer. His uncle detecting the scholar in the young man urged that he should be sent to Cambridge. In 1660 this was done and in 1665 Newton graduated.

4. The plague hit London and he returned to his mother's farm to remain out of danger. He had already worked out the binomial theorem in mathematics.

A. At his mother's farm something greater happened. He watched an apple fall to the ground and began to wonder if the same force that pulled the apple downward also held the Moon in its grip. The story of the apple had often been thought a myth, but according to Newton's own words, it was true.

5. Newton theorized that the rate of fall was proportional to the strength of the gravitational force and that this force fell off according to the square of the distance from the centre of the Earth. (This is the famous "inverse square" law).

6. lie made his calculations which appeared to be wrong and did not prove his observation. He was dreadfully disappointed and put the problem of gravitation aside for fifteen years. In this same period 1665-1666 Newton condiatcd startling optical experiments.

7. Newton's prism experiments made him famous. In 1664 his mathematics teacher resigned in his favor and Newton at t\vent\-$e\en found himself a professor of mathematics at Cambridge, lie was elected to the Royal Society in 1672. His famous "Principia Mathematica" was published in 1687, It is generally considered to be the greatest scientific work ever written.

 

2 .

1 What was Newton interested in when at school?

2 why was he taken out of school ?

3 Who interested on sending Newton to the university?

4 What made Newton put the theory of gravitation aside for a long time?

5What work is considered the greatest in science ?



3 (+) (-)

1 Newton and Galileo were born in the same years.

2 He didnt show any curiosity about the world when at school.

3 He had to go from school to help his family.

4 The plague didnt let him graduate from Cambridge.

4 1- 6- .

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Model:

Newton was born in 1643 (When?) When was Newton born?

 

1 At school he showed no signs of unusual brightness. (Who?)

2 He was taken from school to help his family. (Why?)

3 Newtons work deserves great interest. (What?)

4 His mathematics teacher resigned in his favour. (In whose favour?)

6In 1665-1666 Newton was busy with optical experiments. (When?)

6 .

1 In his school years Newton showed unusual brightness. Curiosity.

a) either or c) both and

b) neither or d) as as

2 There a lot of disappointments in Newtons scientific works ever written.

a) were c) is

b) are d) was

3 Principia Mathematica is considered one of scientific works ever written.



a) the less important c) the more important

b) the best important d) the most important

4 Newton assumed that the rate of fall proportional to the strength of the gravitational force.

a) will be c) was

b) is d) had been

5 Did disappoint Newton in his scientific experiments?

a) any things c) nothing

b)anything d) something

7 .

Model:

The scientists are discussing The new methods of work are

the new methods of work - being discussed by the scientists.

 

 

1 The calculations didnt prove the observations.-The observations

2 The opponents have just achieved the concensus.- The concensus

3 The scientists found this theory very unusual.-This theory

4. The teacher asked many questions

5 The drawing illustrates the rule. The rule

 

8 .

1 His uncle understood that Isaak should be sent to the university.

2 It was his mother who returned him to the farm to help her.

3 He had to work hard to combine teaching and research.

4 Neither Newton nor anyone else could make the right calculations to prove his theory.

5 His new research was much less disapproving than the previous one.

 

4

1. Igor Kurchatov.


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