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For future development and progress. It trains people to become teachers, engineers, doctors and other professional workers.
In all the industrial countries standards of living are steadily changing; this means that the kind of education, which was good enough thirty years ago, is not necessarily good for them today. The serious need to find ways and means of ensuring continuous and thorough adoption of the universities to contemporary needs in our rapidly changing world is widely recognized. And this means that styles of teaching, quality of learning materials1 and organization of the university itself have to be continuously brought up to date2 and improved.
Besides, knowledge and information which comes through the mass media must also be taken into consideration. This information explosion3 has affected every field of Study, especially, of course, in the natural and applied sciences and in all other sciences as well. The increase of information requires new methods and new approaches to students' training and instruction4.
At present a new system of education is introduced in this country — a distance education system. This computer system of learning helps working professionals to continue their education while remaining at their jobs. This system enables people to get knowledge and a good foundation in the sciences basic to his or her field of study. Distance learning has developed over years5 from satellite video courses to modern videoconferencing through personal computers.
The academic year usually lasts 9 months and is divided into two terms (semesters). The first- and second-year students obtain thorough instructions in the fundamental sciences of mathematics, physics, chemistry and drawing as well as computer engineering and a number of others. The curricula are enriched and broadened6 by instructions in such subjects as foreign languages, history and economics.
At the third year students get more advanced knowledge and begin to concentrate on their special interests, so to say, their «major» subject and take many courses in this subject. Specialized study and courses will help students to become specialists and prepare them for their future work.
After four years students will get a bachelor's degree. Then the students may go on with their studies and in a year or two of further study and research get a master's degree. After graduating from the university they may go on with their study and research and may get a still higher degree.
About 75 percent of students receive state grants and 15 percent are sponsored by enterprises. Universities have their own students' hostels and some of them have large and excellent sport centers.
Education is a process through which culture is preserved, knowledge and skills are developed, values are formed, and information is exchanged.
Education is the way to success.
Notes to the Text
1. learning materials — учебный материал
2. to bring up to date — довести до современных требований
3. information explosion — информационный взрыв
4. training and instruction — подготовка и обучение
5. over years — за многие годы
6. curricula are enriched and broadened — программы (курсы обучения) обогащаются и расширяются
Упражнение 12.Просмотрите упражнение 7 и текст 1А, ответьте на вопросы.
1. When does the academic year begin in this country? 2. How many exams did you pass to enter the University? 3. Do you pay for your education? 4. Do students get grants? 5. What subjects do students study in the first year? 6. Which subject is the most interesting for you? 7. Is there a sport center in your University? 8. What degree do students get after four years of study? 9. What degree can a student get after two years of further study and research? 10. What new education system is introduced in this country? 11. What specialities do people get after graduating from a university? 12. Why is higher education important in the life of every country?
Упражнение 13.Сравните предложения в действительном и страдательном залоге, переведите их.
1. Students asked the lecturer many questions. The lecturer was asked many questions. 2. The monitor told the first-year students to come to the laboratory. The first-year students were told to come to the laboratory. 3. Usually a lab assistant shows the equipment to the students. Usually the equipment is shown to the students by a lab assistant. Usually students are shown the equipment by a lab assistant. 4. Students watched the process with great attention. The process was watched with great attention. 5. Tomorrow our teacher
will give us a new task. A new task will be given tomorrow. We shall be given a new task tomorrow. 6. Practice accompanies theory. Theory is accompanied by practice. 7. He asked me to bring a dictionary. He was asked to bring a dictionary. 8. The teacher told the students to sign their drawings. The students were told to sign their drawings. 9. The dean will send the students to a big plant in summer. The students will be sent to a big plant in summer. 10. He taught us to use the lab equipment. We were taught to use the lab equipment.
Упражнение 14. А.Переделайте предложения из действительного в страдательный залог.
1. You open the door. 2. We asked questions. 3. He will finish his project next week. 4. He can do this exercise. 5. They invited me to their conference. 6. I saw a new film. 7. My sister writes letters regularly. 8. Universities develop new methods of students' training. 9. After graduating from the University the students may get a still higher degree. 10. The study of foreign languages, history and economics must improve the curricula of technological universities.
В. Переведите предложения в страдательном залоге, дайте варианты, где возможно.
1. Mathematics, strength of materials, mechanics, elements of machines as well as engineering physics are studied at technological institutes. 2. The development of science is closely connected with the development of higher education. 3. Students are provided with hostels, well-equipped laboratories and libraries. 4. Any country must be provided with good specialists in all branches of science and technology for its further development. 5. Large sums of money are spent by the state to train highly-qualified engineers. 6. Much attention must be paid to improve the standards of higher education. 7. Students of technological institutes are trained to analyse various facts and theories. 8. The scientific and technological progress of a country is determined by the qualification of specialists. 9.Some institutes of technology are reorganized into universities. 10.The country must be provided with specialists capable of working with the technology of tomorrow effectively.
Упражнение 15.Найдите Participle I и Participle II, переведите предложения.
1. The students studying at the institutes passed entrance exams in summer. 2. The subjects studied in the first two years are very important for future engineers. 3. The lecture delivered by our dean
was on new methods of technology. 4. The man delivering this lecture is our professor on mathematics. 5. An article discussing the new system of school education appeared in all newspapers. 6. The results of the experiments discussed yesterday will be published. 7. The attention paid to the study of fundamental subjects is great. 8. Students interested in computer engineering enter technological institutes. 9. The number of specialists connected with new branches of science and engineering is increased every year.
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ
Упражнение 16.Определите по суффиксу, к какой части речи относятся следующие слова:
administration, gradual, electric, intensively, practical, dramatic, integral, specific, operation, illumination, naturally, identical, organization, originally, arctic, technical, acceleration.
Упражнение 17.Найдите в тексте 1А слова с суффиксами -tion, -al, -ic, -ly и переведите их.
Упражнение 18.Найдите глагольные формы, которые могут быть сказуемыми в предложении:
student, many, will be passed, doing, technical, has, reports, studied, interesting, connected, are, were done, large, is, tasks, developed, is read, coming, texts, badly, giving, had, was made possible, are given, forms, necessary, teaches, basis, was, done.
а) антонимы (слова, противоположные по значению)
to begin, to enter, young, large, to open, to take, quick, much, to graduate from, many, long, slow, little, to finish, old, small, to close, to give, few, short;
б) синонимы (слова, совпадающие по значению)
new, large, many, to begin, to take, to speak, to enter, to build, to do, to get, modern, big, to start, much, to make, main, to talk, to construct, to come into, major.
Упражнение 20.Составьте предложения из следующих слов в соответствии с порядком слов в английском предложении.
1. has, buildings, our, several, institute. 2. subjects, students, many, the first-year, study. 3. the third-year, had, last, students, training, industrial, summer. 4. carry out, students, practical, work, in, laboratories, well-equipped. 5. problems, many, scien-
tists, important, solve, our. 6. texts, difficult, Petrov, technical, translated. 7. his, will, the teacher, translation, correct. 8. next, dean, a lecture, deliver, our, week, will. 9. students, more, institutes, last, entered, a million, than, year.
Упражнение 21.Заполните пропуски глаголами to be, to have в соответствующем времени.
1. Moscow ... the capital of Russia. 2. There ... many institutes in Moscow. 3. The oldest of them ... Moscow University. 4. Our University ... one of the oldest technological institutes in this country. 5. It... founded in 1830. 6. It... old and new buildings. 7. There ... laboratories, workshops and libraries in our institute. 8. Every faculty ... its own computer center. 9. Our library ... a great number of books and magazines in all branches of science and technology. 10. Last year we ... at school, next year we ... the second year students. 11. We ... industrial training in the third year.
Упражнение 22.Выберите правильную форму.
1. Entrance exams (held, are held) in summer. 2. More than 20 new technological institutes (were founded, founded) in the last decade. 3. Basic engineering subjects (studied, are studied) in the first and second years. 4. Highly-qualified specialists (trained, are trained) at higher schools. 5. More than a million students (enroled, were enroled) to the institutes and universities of this country last summer. 6. The training of specialists (will be improved, will improve) as a result of restructuring in the next few years.
Упражнение 23.Напишите ответы на вопросы по следующему образцу:
Are there two presidents in the United States? No, there are not. There are not two presidents in the United States. There is one president in the United States.
1. Are there thirteen months in a year? 2. Are there eight days in a week? 3. Are there fifty minutes in a hour? 4. Are there seventy seconds in a minute? 5. Are there forty days in a month? 6. Are there thirty days in February? 7. Are there thirty-two days in January? 8. Are there five seasons in a year?
Упражнение 24.Выберите соответствующие местоимения.
А. 1. (We, us) all went with (their, them) to the dean's office. 2. My friend came to see (I, me) last night. 3. Victor gave Peter and (I, me) a book and we went to the reading-room with (he, him) and his friend. 4. He told Mary and (me, I) to go with (he, him) and his
sister. 5. They know all about my friend and (I, me). 6. I came to the Institute with Michael and (her, she). 7. An old man asked (we, us) to come and see (him, his). 8. Go with David and (her, she) to visit (they, them).
B. They invited me to (them, their) party. 2. He could not an
C. 1. Your dictionary is new, but (my, mine) is not. 2. She says
Упражнение25. Выразите согласие или несогласие.
1. Do you study at school? 2. Are you a student of the third year? 3. Do you study many subjects? 4. Did you pass your entrance exams well? 5. Do you live in Moscow? 6. Do you live far from the institute? 7. Is English your favourite subject? 8. Will you go to the concert tomorrow? 9. Were your books taken from the library? 10. Do you live in the hostel?
Упражнение 26.Заполните пропуски предлогами in, at, on, to, into, under, near.
1. We live ... Moscow. 2.1 get up ... seven o'clock and leave ... eight. 3.1 usually walk ... the institute. 4. There are three rooms ... our flat. 5. There is a picture ... the wall and a small table ... the picture. 6. He comes ... the room and sits down ... the chair ... the table. 7. ... the evening we watch TV or read books. 8. We do not study... Sunday. 9. There are several newspapers ... the table. 10. The accident happened ... the bridge.
Упражнение 27.Дайте недостающие формы глагола, запомните их.
got, beginning, took, meant, say, becoming, found, brought, going, come
Упражнение 28.Прочитайте и переведите текст без словаря.
As you know higher education trains highly-qualified specialists for further development and progress of the country. The students
making good progress get state grants. The course of study at the universities lasts about six years. The students take three or four years of general engineering and fundamental courses, then one or two years of specialized training in some fields of science and technology. In the first and second years a good foundation for professional knowledge is provided. At present there are many modern laboratories at institutes. Most higher schools have their own computer centers. This means that the state must spend a lot of money to improve higher education.
CONVERSATION Exercise 1.Answer the questions.
1. How old are you now? 2. Where were you born? 3. What city did you come from? 4. Where did you go to school? 5. What foreign language did you study at school? 6. How long did you study at school? 7. Why did you enter this institute? 8. What are your favourite subjects at the institute? 9. Where do you live? 10. Do you live with your family? 11. How do you usually spend your Saturday and Sunday? 12. What did you do last weekend? 13. What are you going to do next weekend? 14. What is your favourite sport? 15. What is your hobby? 16. Where do you usually spend your summer vacation? 17. When do you usually get up in the morning? 18. At what time do you usually leave home? 19. How do you usually get to the institute?
Exercise 2.Read and learn.
Ted: I'm nearly there. I think I'll give it to you on Tuesday.
Ted's ins.: That's good. I can't let you have another extension
was a really big assignment. Ted's ins.: Well, I'll expect it next week. Now, would you like to hear
the details of the schedule?
Ted's ins.: You'll have four examinations. General mechanics is in
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