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III. Answer the questions. 1. What are prokaryotes?

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  6. B. Find the answers to the following questions in the passage given bellow. Put the passage in the correct order to form the text (use questions as the prompt)
  7. B. Predict the answers to the questions before reading
  8. B. Read the text and find the answers to the following questions.
  9. B. Read the text below and find answers to the following questions.
  10. C. Answer the questions.


1. What are prokaryotes?

2. What organisms have a nucleus?

3. Do prokaryotes have a nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelles?

4. How many major classifications do prokaryotes include?

5. What is the distinction of eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells?

6. Are the ribosomes in prokaryotes bigger or smaller than in eukaryotes?

7. What is the genome within a DNA/protein complex called?

8. Where can we find highly organized chromosomes in eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells?

9. Where are intracellular water-soluble components (proteins, DNA and metabolites) located?

10. What processes take place across the prokaryotic cell membrane?

IV. Find true and false sentences according to the text:


1. Prokaryotic cells are usually much bigger than eukaryotic cells.

2. Prokaryotes lack distinct mitochondria and chloroplasts.

3. Only eukaryotes contain large RNA/protein structures called ribosomes.

4. All large complex organisms are eukaryotes, including animals, plants and fungi.

5. Cell division in eukaryotes is the same in those organisms without a nucleus (Prokaryote).

6. Eukaryota appears to be monophyletic, and so makes up one of the three domains of life.

7. Two organelles found in many eukaryotic cells, mitochondria and chloroplasts, contain ribosomes similar in size and makeup to those found in prokaryotes.


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V. Retell the text


Grammar: Past Perfect


We use the Past Perfect to express an action completed before a given past moment. This moment may be indicated :

1. By adverbial expressions such as by six o’clock, by that time, by the end of the week etc.

I had finished dressing by three o’clock.

I had ridden this horse before last Sunday.


2. by another action in the past simple

When Kamila arrived at the party, Kairat had already gone home.

When we got home last night , we found that somebody had broken into the flat.

He suddenly realized that he had left his suitcase in the bus.

Bulat didn’t want to go to the cinema with us because she had already seen the film.


Positive Negative Questions
I had gone I had not gone Had I gone ?
You had gone You had not gone Had you gone?
He had gone He had not gone Had he gone?
She had gone She had not gone Had she gone?
It had gone It had not gone Had it gone?
We had gone We had not gone Had we gone?
You had gone You had not gone Had you gone?
They had gone They had not gone Had they gone?

The Past Perfect is = had+Past Participle ( gone, seen, finished etc)

I had gone = I’d had gone I had not gone = I hadn’t gone

Exercise 1.UsePast Perfect or Past Simple!

1. When he (to come) home, his mother already (to cook) dinner.

2. When we (to come) to my friend’s house, he just (to leave).

3. When her husband (to enter) her office, she already (to finish) her work for that day.
4. Jennifer (to send) him an email after he (to call).

5. Andy (to ask) his friend before he (to propose) him his help.
6. We (to eat) a cake which I (to bring) an hour before.

7. My sister (to take) my dress which I (to buy) in Morocco.

8. I (to work) on the computer yesterday which I (to buy) a week ago.

9. I (to know) that my friend (not yet to complete) the test in the university.

10. Nick and his wife (to come) home from the theatre at five o'clock.

11. Nick and his wife (to come) home from the theatre by five o'clock.
12. She (to finish) my homework at seven o'clock.

13. She (to finish) my homework by seven o'clock.

14. They (to sell) their house before they (to buy) the new one.

15. He told me that he (to buy) a new car.

16. Yesterday I (to wake up), (to open) my eyes and (to remember) what I (to do) the day before.

17. She said that she (to have) a great vacation trip.

18. You (to complete) the test by Friday?

19. I (not to have) a lunch by the afternoon, so I was very hungry.
20. I (to fix) my car before my daughter (to return) back from school.

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