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VOCABULARY. редко встречающийся




 

1. scarce [skɛəs] adj. недостаточный, скудный, редкий,

редко встречающийся

2. insect [¢ɪnsekt] n. насекомoе

3. hibernate [¢haɪbə:neɪt] v. находиться в зимней спячке

4. survive [sə¢vaɪv] v. выжить, уцелеть

5. store v. запасать, накапливать,

откладывать

6. burrow [¢bə:rəu] n. нора

7. den n. логово, берлога, нора

8. extra food n. дополнительная еда

9. fall n. осень

10. plentiful [¢plentɪful] adj. обильный, изобильный

11. fat n. жир

12. patch [pætʃ] n. пятно, небольшой участок

13. brain n. мозг

14. heart [ha:t] n. сердце

15. lungs [lʌŋz] n. легкие

16. burst of energy импульс энергии

17. drop v. падать

18. breathing n. дыхание

19. heart beat сердцебиение

20. woodchuck [¢wudtʃʌk] n. сурок

21. awaken v. просыпаться

22. shiver v. дрожать

23. be available иметься, быть в наличии

24. jumping mouse n. тушканчик

25. bat n. летучая мышь

26. chipmunk [¢tʃɪpmʌŋk] n. бурундук

27. squirrel [¢skwɪr(ə)l] n. белка обыкновенная

28. skunk [skʌŋk] n. скунс

29. raccoon [rə¢ku:n] n. енот

30. excrete [eks¢krɪ:t] v. физиол. выделять, извергать

31. Hibernation Inducement механизм, cтимулирующий

Trigger (“запускающий”) спячку

32. opiate [¢əupɪɪt] n. наркотик; успокаивающее

средство

 

Exercise 1.Give the three forms of the irregular verbs from the text.

 

Eat, awake, send, fall, sleep, drink, get, become

 

Exercise 2. Find sentences with the following adjectives and adverbs in the text. Read and translate the sentences.

 

main quickly

scarce slightly

extra briefly

plentiful severe

regular available

true major

significantly easily

 

Exercise 3. Give degrees of comparison of the following adjectives.

 

Scarce, little, quick, difficult, mild, light, severe

 

Exercise 4. Give nouns of the following words.

 

solve, hibernate, warm, available, survive, shiver, breathe, prepare

 

Exercise 5. Match the words with the opposite meaning in column A and column B

 

scarce earlier

survive hard

later plentiful

hibernate die

dead wake up

drop alive

easily rise

 

Exercise 6. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following Russian words and phrases:

 

большинство животных, достаточно пищи, источник пищи, такие как…, в

течение коротких периодов, удар (сердца) в минуту, слишком низкие, чтобы согреться немного, если есть еда, хотя, лишь незначительно, в отличие от…, пора… (делать что-то), очень редкие (скудные), выжить, подготовиться к…

 

Exercise 7.Paraphrase using the words from the text.

 

to go into a deep sleep, animals that hibernate, the period of hibernating, to appear dead, if there is food, doesn't drop very much, not similar to others, during not so severe winter, something strange or unknown.

 

Exercise 8.Put the missing prepositions if necessary:

1. Some animals solve the problem … finding food … hibernating.

2. Most hibernators prepare … some way …the winter.

3. Some hibernating animals eat when they awake … short periods.

4. True hibernators go … such a deep sleep that they are difficult to wake and may appear dead.

5. If an animal lives … an area where the winter is mild, it may hibernate only briefly, or not …all.

6. Although a grizzly or black bear's heart rate may drop … a normal … 40-50 beats …minute … …8-12, its temperature drops only slightly.

 

Exercise 9. Fill the gaps in these sentences with the suitable words given below:

 

unlike store, available, scarce, experience, survive, conserve, solve, significantly

 

1. If an animal's main source of food is… in the winter, it may… this problem by hibernating.

2. Hibernation allows animals … energy and … the winter with little or no food.

3. Some hibernators … food in their burrows or dens, to eat when they awake for short periods.

4. The body temperature of hibernators drops and breathing and heart beat slow …

5. Even when the weather is severe, hibernators may wake up for short periods to eat if food is … .

6. Some animals don’t … major changes in temperature, heart rate and breathing.

7. Grizzly or black bears are unique because … other hibernators, they do not eat, drink, or excrete at all while hibernating for as long as six months.

 

Exercise 10.Ask the questions for which these could be possible answers.

 

1. The biggest problem for most animals in the winter is finding enough food.

2. The problem of finding food is solved by hibernating.

3. Preparing for the winter most hibernators store food in their burrows and dens.

4. Another way of preparing for hibernating is eating extra food in the fall.

5. Body temperature of hibernating animals drops and breathing and heart beat slow down significantly.

6. If an animal's temperature falls too low, it will awaken slightly and shiver to warm up a bit.

7. The largest hibernators are the bears.

8. These bears are unique because, unlike other hibernators, they do not eat, drink, or excrete for at least six months.

9. Hibernation Inducement Trigger that is some kind of opiate, chemically related to morphine, triggers hibernation.

 

Exercise 11.Make an outline of the text.

Exercise 12. Give a short summаry of the text.


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