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Внутреннее членение предложения при переводе

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Примером внутреннего членения предложения при переводе может быть перевод инфинитива в некоторых функциях, инфинитивных, причастных и герундиальных оборотов.

Задание 29. Проанализируйте грамматические

трансформации, происходящие в предложении при переводе инфинитива.

То improve old processes one should analyze...

To make steel harder it is necessary...

To be tested the metal is placed...

The metal to be tested is placed...

To be utilized in industry the metals are to be...

The metals to be utilized in industry are to be...

Our task is to vary the properties...

The new substance is to reinforce

Задание 30. Переведите предложения с инфинитивом в разных функциях. Обратите внимание на внутреннее членение предложений при переводе.

1. То remove the oxygen and useless materials, the iron ore along with

coke and limestone are charged into the blast furnace.

2. Bessemer's idea was to use an egg-shaped container.

3. To write the program the programmer must have a good understanding

of the problem for the computer.

4. The machine to be made at our plant will differ from the previous one.

5. The students come to the laboratory to make experiments.

6. To understand metallurgy, knowledge of chemistry and physics is


7. To completely identify a DOS file, you must include its name and path

to the root directory.

: tug - усилие, напряжение, борьба; спор

8. These computers may not be on the same networks and require a
variety of passwords and protocols to communicate.

9. Writing a computer program involves analysis of the problem to be

solved and an algorithm to solve it.

Задание 31. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на инфинитив в функции определения и на преобразования в структуре предложения, происходящие при его переводе.

1. What are the lessons to be learned devoted to?

2. This is not an opportunity to be thrown away.

3. An interesting distinction to be made here is between problems and techniques.

4. Another factor to be taken into consideration is the power of modem experimental techniques.

, 5. The rate of our know ledge growth w ill surely increase in the years to come.

6. An important point to be dealt with in the next chapter is different techniques of data-processing.

7. Although Earth's airless satellite was the first planetary object to be explored by spacecraft and the only body ever visited by astronauts, scientists still have many unanswered questions about its history, composition and internal structure.

Задание 32. Переведите предложения, обращая особое внимание на функцию инфинитива и внутреннее членение предложений при их переводе.

1. A programming device is used to input the desired instructions.

2. Push buttons (sensors), in this simple example, connected to a PLC inputs can be used to start and stop a motor connected to a PLC through a motor starter (actuator).

3. By reprogramming the T 37 contact as a normally closed contact, the function of the circuit is changed to cause the indicator light to turn off only when the timer times out.

4. The problem to be considered here is to determine the indication of power and energy meters as a result of their location at certain places in electric circuits, and not their indications as a result of temperature

changes, position and types of coils used, the shape of iron cores, etc., in the meters themselves.

5. In the discussion to follow, it should be constantly kept in mind that so far as connecting them in the circuit is concerned, there is absolutely no difference between indicating and integrating power and energy meters.

6. During the next few months, the agency will develop an intensive monitoring program to begin in January.

7. The first women to work outside the house in substantial numbers were single farm girls who took jobs in the new textile mills of new England beginning in the 1820s.

U.I Задание 33. Переведите текст, обращая особое внимание на перевод инфинитива.

The design of an automatic computer is not a simple matter. To understand how to use a computer one must fully appreciate its design. Therefore, a brief introduction to the logical design is necessary for the users to understand the underlying idea. To present some background material on theoretical and philosophical aspects of information processing is to give the user more profound understanding of computers* application. From what has been said above, it is clear that a computer may be thought of both as a machine by which to handle information and a machine by which to transform one set of symbols into another. For the user it is a machine to process the information, a way to obtain an output by applying to an input a specified sequence of logical operations. The designer considers a computer to be a device for applying a sequence of logic operations to symbols representing information.

Since mathematical operations are a particular group of logic operations, the consideration of logic operations by definition includes mathematical operations. To appreciate the significance of the conventional character of logic, and to gain some understanding of computer logical design we must consider a few simple games. These games are to illustrate some significant factors.

Рубцова М.Г. Чтение и перевод научно-технической литературы [Текст] : лексико-грамматический справочник / М.Г.Рубцова. - М. : ООО «Издательство Астрель\>.,2002г. -С. 265.



Объектный инфинитивныйоборот (Complex Object)

подлежащее + сказуемое + дополнение + Infinitive

1. I have never known him to be working at this problem.
2. I know him to have informed about the meeting.

1. Я никогда не знал, что он в то время работал над этой проблемой.

2. Я знаю, что ему сообщили о собрании.

Объектный инфинитивный оборот состоит из существительного в общем падеже или местоимения в объектном падеже и инфинитива. Употребляется после глаголов, выражающих желание (want, wish) и умозаключения, например:

to appear - казаться (что), по-видимому

to expect - предполагать, ожидать (что)

to consider - считать, думать (что)

to take - принимать, считать (что)

to believe - считать, полагать (что)

to prove - оказываться, доказывать (что)

to hold - полагать, считать (что)

to have, to get - добиваться того, чтобы, заствлять

to make, to force, to cause, to lead - заставлять, вынуждать, делать так.


Задание 34. Сравните пары предложений, обращая внимание на изменение структуры предложений при переводе объектного инфинитивного оборота.

1. The engineer wants to carry out some experiments. 2. The chemist expected to obtain a new substance with some new properties. 3. I'd like to repeat this reaction.


1. The engineer wants the students to carry out some experiments.

2. The chemist expected his assistant to obtain a new substance with some new properties.

3. I'd like this reaction to be

repeated. Задание 35. Переведите предложения, в состав которых входит объектный инфинитивный оборот, и проанализируйте изменения структуры предложений при переводе.

1. They consider the methods of purifying materials to have undergone great changes in recent years.

2. The scientist supposed the presence of the second element to change the stable form of a solid metal.

3. The teacher wanted his students to type the text as quickly as possible.

4. I know him to be the best programmer in this team.

5. We consider Norbert Wiener to be the father of Cybernetics.

6. The customers expected the company to provide them with technical support.

7. Due to the fast development of IT technology we expect this type of dual system to be in place within just a few years.

IllПосле глаголов, выражающих физическое восприятие (to see, to hear, to feel, to watch) инфинитив употребляется без частицы to.

Задание 36. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на внутреннее членение предломсений при переводе объектного инфинитивного оборота.

l.The visitors saw the skilled worker assemble the tiny devices very quickly. 2. We can make an atom serve the needs of man. 3. The technician felt something heavy strike the platform. 4. I have never heard anyone give so much interesting information in one report. 5. The great heat made the engineer utilize other working conditions. 6. He didn't hear anybody enter the laboratory.

А Задание 37. Переведите текст', выделяя оборот «дополнение с инфинитивом». Сравните грамматическую структуру переведенных предложений и подлинника,

Рубцова М.Г. Чтение и перевод научно-технической литературы [Текст] : лекеико-грамматический справочник / М.Г.Рубцова. - М. : ООО ЧИздательство Астрел^>., 2002 г. -С. 278.


Men of science consider Lobachevsky to be a great mathematician. The whole world knows Lobachevsky to have strictly demonstrated and explained the principles of the theory of parallel lines, We consider him to be a great organizer of popular education, and we know him to have written much on the problems of education.

Lobachevsky was born on December 1. 1792 near Nizhny Novgorod. His father died when he was only a child, leaving the family in extreme poverty. The family moved to Kazan where Lobachevsky was admitted to the gymnasium. We know his progress to have been extremely rapid in mathematics and classics. At the age of 14 he entered the University of Kazan where he is known to have spent 40 years as a student, assistant professor, and finally rector. Under his direction great improvements were made at the University. We know an observatory to have been founded and equipped and a mechanical workshop to have been established.

For 2200 years all the mankind believed Euclid to have discovered an absolute truth. Lobachevsky proved Euclid's axiom on parallel lines not to be true. He built a new geometrical theory quite different from that of Euclid. We know his ideas to have greatly influenced not only geometry, but mechanics, physics, astronomy as well. Like Galileo. Copernicus and Newton he is one of those who laid the foundation of science.

й Абсолютный (независимый) инфинитивныйоборот

Абсолютный (независимый) инфинитивный оборот обычно стоит в конце предложения и вводится союзом with. При переводе часто используются союзы: причем, а, и. Переводя инфинитив, сказуемым придаточного предложения, русский глагол ставится или в форму будущего времени, или переводится со словом должен.

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