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The letter was written by his friend.
He was aware of the fact.
They believed in his talent.
Определение. (Отвечает на вопросы: какой? чей? сколько?)
She saw an old man.
The man standing at the door smiled.
They had ten pieces of luggage.
He was reading a letter written by his friend.
It's somebody else's book.
They visited the health centre.
The machine was in the state of rest.
The most important thing for him to do was to revise grammar.
Обстоятельства. Как и в русском языке, они указывают место, время, образ действия, причину, цель, степень и отвечают на те же вопросы (где?, когда?, как? (при каких обстоятельствах?), по какой причине?, для чего?, в какой степени (мере)?). Обстоятельства, особенно места и времени, обычно определить достаточно легко. Правда, иногда путают причину и цель.
They were shivering with cold (причины).
To overcome the differences he advised them to put off the talk (цели).
He saw almost all of them (степени, меры).
The play concludes very much as it began, with the visitors gone (образа действия или сопутствующих обстоятельств).
1. What part of speech is the word «question» in the sentence:
«He wants first of all to question a large number of people about their feelings on the matter?» What part of the sentence is it?
– It is a verb inthe form of Infinitive. It means «to ask a question, to examine». In this sentence it is a part of a Compound Verbal Predicate.
2. What is the difference between this verb and the verb «to ask» and «to interview»?
– It is more formal than the verb «to ask» and belongs to the style of scholarly writing or to legal language. For example, "He was questioned by the police.» The verb «to interview» means «to meet for discussion». Thus, for example, employers interview applicants for posts. This verb is also widely used in the language of the press when reporters have a talk with people whose views are requested. «The reporter interviewed University students.»
3. What synonyms and antonyms of the word «large» do you know?
– I can give the following synonyms: great, big, considerable. But strictly speaking, each of these words has its own connotations and we cannot simply substitute one word for another. Thus, for instance, we can say «a large number», «a great number». But if we say «a great writer» we cannot say «a large writer» in this sense.
The antonyms for «large» are : small, little, slight. But as is the case with the synonyms their use depends on the situation.
4. Give the morphological analysis of the word «unbelievable». Can you give any more examples of the adjectives with the same suffix and prefix?
– It is an adjective. It is formed from the verb «to believe». «Believe» is the root, «un-» is a productive prefix, «-able» is a productive suffix. The meaning of the prefix is negative, it implies the absence of something. The suffix «-able» may serve to coin new words, so it is called productive adjective-forming suffix.
Other examples with the same suffix and prefix are: unfavourable, uneatable, unsuitable.
5. What do the expressions «as a matter of fact», «it goes without saying» and «make do with something» mean?
– «As a matter of fact» means «although you may not know about it or may be surprised». It may be translated into Russian as «фактически, на самом деле».
«It goes without saying» means something which can be understood without actually being stated. Its Russian equivalent is «само собой разумеется».
«Make do with something» means to manage with something although it may not be really adequate or satisfactory, for example: «He had to make do with cold coffee for breakfast.» – «Пришлось обойтись (довольствоваться)...». It's rather a colloquial expression.
6. Comment on the use of the article in the phrase: «The computer is a data storage system created by man.»
– The definite article «the» is being used because this word is regarded in its generic sense and it means all the computers existing in the world. The indefinite article shows that this system is not specified. There are other systems and it is only one of the whole range of different systems. The article is omitted before the word «man» because neither all the people are implied nor a single person. So there is no need for an article. It means human being in general.
7. What is the plural of «modus», the singular of «strata»? What is the comparative degree of the adverbs «easily» and «early»?
–The plural of «modus» is «modi» [moudai]. The singular of «strata» is «stratum» [stra-'tam]. Both of them are of Latin origin. The comparative degree of «easily» is «more easily» , of «early» – «earlier».
8. What is the form of the verb «to write» in the sentence: «They knew that the article would have been written by that time.»
– Future Perfect in the Past, Passive.
– And in the sentence: «They knew nothing of his having written the article?»
– It is Perfect Gerund Active.
9. Find the predicate in the sentences:
«One important point should be mentioned.»
«By that time the system will have been functioning for ten years.»
«Overstatement is a frequent feature in political speeches.»
What kind of predicate is it?
– «Should be mentioned» is a Compound Verbal Predicate. «Should» is a modal verb here;
«will have been functioning» is a Simple Predicate, Future Perfect Continuous. «Will» is an auxiliary verb;
«is ... a feature» – a Compound Nominal Predicate. The verb «to be» in the form of Present Simple is a link-verb.
10. What is the function of the verb «to have» in the sentence: «All news reporting in the press has to convey a good deal of information in the most readable way.»
– It is a modal verb in a Compound Verbal Predicate. It expresses obligation or necessity. As compared with the similar verbs «must» or «to be» it implies «forced by circumstances».
11. Give the opposite of «exact», «material» (adj.).
– Exact means correct in every detail, free from error. So the opposite of «exact» may be «inexact», «inaccurate'», «incorrect», «material - immaterial».
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