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Examples. Do you like tomatoes and French beans?

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Do you like tomatoes and French beans?

I do not like tomatoes very much but I do like French beans.

Did he enjoy the liqueur chocolates and the peppermint chocolates?

He did. not enjoy the liqueur chocolates very much but he did enjoy the peppermint



1Do you like tomatoes and French beans?

2Did he enjoy the liqueur chocolates and the peppermint chocolates?

3Does he like musicals and straight plays?

4Do they want to go to the museum and the zoo?

5Did you want the red scarf and the blue one?

6Does she like Bob and Joe?

7Do they like new houses and old houses?

8Does he want to visit London and Bristol?

9Do you like prawns and lobster?

10 Did she like the first film and the second film?




A contract defines rights and obligations of the par­ties.

In case of breach of Contract the sufferer makes a claim on the party, which fails to meet its contract obli­gations (the defaulter). It is more often the case that it is the Buyer who makes a claim on the Seller.

Most often the Buyer makes quality and quantity claims on the Seller. The cause for complaint may be poor qual­ity, breakage, damage, short weight, leakage etc.

What is the claim procedure?

The Buyer must write a statement of claim and mail it to the seller together with the supporting documents. Bill of Lading, Airway and Railway Bill, Survey Report, Quality Certificate may serve as documentary evidence. Claims can be lodged during a certain period of time, which is usually fixed in a Contract.

During the claim period the Seller either meets the claim or declines it.

The Seller declines liability if the Bill of Lading is "clean», that is the shipping company hasn't made any remarks about the quantity or condition of the cargo shipped.

If a claim has a legitimate ground behind it the par­ties try to settle it amicably.

What are the ways of settling a claim?

In case of short-weight it is compensated by a load sent separately. In case of damage or faults, the goods can be repaired or replaced, all at the Seller's expense.

Sometimes if deviation in quality is within certain limits, the goods can be retained by the Buyer but with an allowance proportional to the discrepancy in quality. This is usually the case with raw materials, foodstuffs or any other goods sent in bulk.

If the goods are lost the Seller must find them. Some­times it is quite a problem because goods may be lost at some intermediate port or sent to a wrong address. If the goods are not recovered the party directly responsible for it must pay the compensation.

The sanction against the Seller

The Seller is penalized if he fails to deliver the goods by the date due. If the delay is longer than 2 months the Buyer can cancel the Contract and the Seller is to com­pensate for the loss incurred.

The sanction against the Buyer

The Seller can make a claim on the Buyer if there is a default in payment.

In a f.o.b. transaction the Seller is entitled to compen­sation for extra storage expenses if the Buyer's vessel bound to pick up the goods fails to call at the port in time.

In a c.i.f. transaction the Seller may claim the demur­rage if his own vessel stays idle at the port waiting for unloading.

The demurrage claims may emerge from the Buyer as well if a Contract is signed on f.o.b. terms of delivery. If it is a c.i.f. contract, the Buyer is liable to extra storage expenses when through the Seller's fault he cannot clear the goods from the customs within the allowable period.

Financially, legitimate claims are in large part settled by debit or credit notes.





breach of contract на­рушение контракта

the sufferer постра­давшая сторона

claim претензия

to lodge a claim on somebody предъявить претензии, подать иск на кого-л.

statement of claim исковое заявление survey report акт осмотра

to meet the claim удовлет­ворить претензию (иск)

to decline the claim откло­нить претензию (иск)

to settle the claim amicably урегулиро­вать, разрешить претен­зию дружеским образом

clean Bill of Lading чистый коносамент

at the Seller's expense за счет продавца

deviation откло­нение

discrepancy несоответствие,

расхож­дение, различие

to retain the goods оставлять у себя


allowance ком­пенсация; скидка

short weight недовес

allowable разрешенный

in bulk насыпью, наливом,


to recover получить назад

food staff пищевые продукты

idle бездействующий

to inflict penalties наложить штраф penalty штраф to penalize штра­фовать

to compensate компенсиро­вать, возмещать

to entitle давать право,


to be entitled иметь право, быть


expenses расхо­ды, издержки

demurrage про­стой судна, вагона

default in payment невыполнение, отсутст­вие оплаты

through somebody's fault. по чьей-либо вине

to clear the goods очищать товары от пошлин

debit note дебет-нота

credit note кредит-нота


Find in the text equivalents for the following expressions:

1. права и обязанности сторон;

2. в случае нарушения договора;

3. пострадавшая сторона предъявляет претензии (по­дает иск);

4. сторона, которая не в состоянии выполнять обя­зательства по контракту;

5. причина для претензии;

6. низкое качество, поломка, повреждение, недовес, утечка;

7. процедура заявления претензий;

8. документарное свидетельство;

9. в течение некоторого периода времени;

10. признать претензию или отклонить ее;

11. отклонить ответственность;

12. отклонить требование;

13. замечания относительно количества или состоя­ния отправленного груза;

14. требование имеет законное основание;

15. уладить претензию дружески.



1. What kinds of claims are made by the Buyer?

2. What sort of claims are lodged by the Seller?

3. What is the procedure of making claims?

4. When does the Seller decline a claim?

5. How are claims settled?

6. What are the sanctions against the defaulter?


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