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LESSON THREE




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  8. LESSON FOUR
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  10. LESSON FOUR

I. Look through the list of the English words and their Russian equivalents for better understanding text B:

subtle – тонкий, неуловимый; to occur – происходить; to convert – преобразовывать; receptive – восприимчивый; beyond – за пределами; wavelength – длина волны; to range – колебаться в пределах; frequency – частота; to approach – приближаться; beam – пучок; луч; to fan out – расходиться, распространяться.

II. Read text В. Find out the main information of the text.

Text В

Radio Waves

During the last few decades, a subtle change has occurred which none of our senses1 can register. Radio waves, bearing messages in many tongues2, flow ceaselessly around us, through us and above us. We can only hear and see them if we convert them to other waves to which our ears and eyes are receptive.

Radio waves are the longest members of the family of electromagnetic waves. In the spectrum, in which the waves are arranged in order of increasing wavelength3, they lie beyond the infrared waves. Their wavelengths range from about three hundredths of a centimetre to about 300 kilometers. Radio broadcasts today are made by two different methods known as AM (amplitude modulation) and FM (frequency modulation). The frequencies of the waves used are expressed in kilocycles or megacycles. The vibrating current is fed into an antenna from which the radio waves are broadcast into space.

Microwaves are the smallest radio waves. In the spectrum of electromagnetic waves they lie between infrared rays and the long radio waves. The shortest microwaves have a wavelength of about three hundredths of a centimetre and a frequency of one million megacycles. The longest microwaves have a wavelength of about three metres and a frequency of one hundred megacycles.

The first microwaves made by man were the two-foot waves produced by Heinrich Hertz. It is interesting that they were the last to be put to a practical use. Long waves were easier to produce and send out over long distances. Scientists had to return to the use of short waves in order to solve a problem4 that came up during World War II. The problem was "How can you detect an approaching enemy plane while it is still far away? " A possible answer to the problem was to send a beam of radio waves. Long radio waves could not be used for this purpose because they fan out too quickly from the broadcasting antenna. Very short waves were necessary to make the radar system work. So new transmitters and receivers were designed to make and use microwaves.



NOTES

1) none of our senses – ни одно из наших чувств

2) bearing messages in many tongues – несущие сообщения на многих языках

3) in order of increasing wavelength – в порядке увеличения длины волны

4) in order to solve a problem – чтобы решить проблему

 

III. Find answers to the following questions:

1. Can we hear and see radio waves? 2. What place do radio waves occupy in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves? 3. Who produced the first microwaves? 4. Were the microwaves the first to be put to a practical use? 5. What kind of problem came up during World War II?

IV. Speak about the characteristics of radio waves and microwaves.


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