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She said that she was going to the theatre with her brother.

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  5. You are going to read a newspaper article about the future. Explain words in bold. For the questions 1-5 after the text choose the best answer.

I. She said, "I'll be ready in a few minutes." 2. He said to me, "My sister has not finished her homework yet." 3. My brother said, "These photographs are not very good." 4. Her friend said, "This letter is full of interesting news. It reached me two days ago." 5. She asked, "Has it been raining all day? " 6. The librarian asked, "Have the books come? 7. She said to me, "I have never been to London." 8. The student said, "I'll work at my diploma design next year." 9. He said, "I am studying English at the University." 10. The professor said to the students, "The next lecture will be on linear motion." 11. My scientific adviser said to me, "You'll go to Moscow to take part in the conference." 12. She asked the student, "Can you translate this article? "13. The teacher said to us, "Don't look up the words in a dictionary when you translate such an easy text." 14. In 1905 Albert Einstein declared, "Matter can be converted into energy." 15. I.V.Kurchatov said, "I am happy to be born in Russia."

X. Say the following sentences in Russian. Take into account the possible ways of translating the passive constructions:

1. The participants of the conference were shown the photographs made in outer space. 2. In the previous section you were given some facts to illustrate this phenomenon. 3. The new information was much spoken about. 4. The discovery of radium was followed by other important inventions. 5. All the machines were looked at with great interest. 6. The construction of this generator was paid great attention to. 7. Einstein's theory of relativity is often referred to by a great number of researchers. 8. We were informed about the report to be made by our professor. 9. The results of this investigation can be relied upon. 10. It is said that his theory produced revolution in science. 11. Use is made of electronics everywhere. 12. The engineer of our laboratory was offered new research work. 13. His report was followed by a short film. 14. Synthetic materials used in space technology are not affected by changes in temperature. 15. The electronic computer will be dealt with in the next chapter. 16. She was listened to with great attention. 17. Why don't you answer when you are spoken to? 18. My letter was answered immediately. 19. Nothing was heard from him.

XI. Translate the sentences. Mind the different meanings of the word for:

1. One must be very attentive in experimenting, foraccuracy is indispensable here. 2. He has not been taking English lessons forseveral months. 3. The problem we are dealing with is very important forour laboratory. 4. Colonial countries fight fortheir independence. 5. I.V. Kurchatov was a passionate fighter forpeace. 6. He brought some papers forme to look them through. 7. It is difficult forhim to solve this problem by himself. 8. We stayed in London fornine days. 9. I shan't do it forthe world. 10. My friend left forMoscow yesterday. 11. This room serves me fora study. 12. We all hoped fora change of the weather. 13. This young lady has a weakness forfine clothes. 14. He will prepare everything forthe experiment. 15. I went to Englandforthe first time ten years ago. 16. He always answered all students' questions forthere were no foolish questions for him.

XII.Match up the words which are similar in meaning:

to take place, to operate, various, to arrive, to control, nearly, to explore, to obtain, actually, ordinary, dimension, to research, complex, to occur, to join, to come, to work, to get, type, almost, conventional, to calculate, size, complicated, different, really, to regulate, kind, to connect, to compute.



I. Study text A. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:

Text A

The History of Television as a Technology

1. It is often said that television has altered our world. The invention of television was no single event or series of events. It depended on a complex of inventions and developments in electricity, telegraphy, photography and motion pictures1, and radio. It can be said to have separated out as a specific technological objective in the period of 1875-1890, and then, after a lag, to have developed as a specific technological enterprise from 1920 through to the first public television systems of the 1930s. Yet in each of these stages it depended on inventions made with other ends in view2.

2. Television, as an idea, was involved with many of these inventions. It is difficult to separate it, in its earliest stages, from phototelegraphy. The means of transmitting still pictures and moving pictures were actively .sought and to a considerable extent discovered. The list is long even when selective3: Carey's electric eye in 1875, Nipkow's scanning system in 1884; Braun's cathode-ray tube in 1897; Rosing's cathode-ray receiver in 1907.

3. Through this whole period two facts are evident: that a system of television was foreseen, and its means were being actively sought4, but also that, by comparison with electrical generation and electrical telegraphy and telephony, there was very little social investment to bring the scattered work together5. In 1923 Zworykin introduced the electronic television camera tube. Through the early 1920s Baird and Lenkins, separately and competitively, were working on systems using mechanical scanning. There was great rivalry between systems and there is still great controversy about contributions and priorities6.

4. What is interesting throughout is that in a number of complex and related fields, these systems of mobility and transfer in production and communication were at once incentives and responses within a phase of general transformation. The decisive transformation of industrial production and its new forms created new needs but also new possibilities, and the communications systems, down to television7, were their outcome.


1.motion pictures — кино

2.with other ends in view — с другими целями

3. the list is long even when selective — список длинный, даже если он сделан


4.its means were being actively sought — шли активные поиски средств

5. to bring the scattered work together — соединить разрозненные работы


6. there is still controversy about contributions and priorities .— все еще идет полемика по поводу степени участия и приоритета

7.down to television — вплоть до телевидения


П. Say whether the following statements are true or false:

1. The invention of television was no single event or series of events. 2. In each of the stages the development of television depended on inventions made with other ends in view. 3. It is not difficult to separate television, in its earliest stages, from phototelegraphy. 4. The means of transmitting still pictures and moving pictures were discovered. 5. There was great rivalry between systems, but there is no controversy about contributions and priorities. 6. The decisive transformation of industrial production created new needs and possibilities.

III.Answer the questions on paragraph 1:

1. Has television altered our world? 2. What did the invention of television depend on? 3. Television has developed as a specific technological enterprise, hasn't it?


IV. Find the information dealing with scientists contribution to the development of television. Say it to your group-mate

V. In paragraph 3 find the English equivalents for:

очевидный, предвидеть, искать, средства, по сравнению с, социальные вложения, разрозненный, отдельно, развертка, соперничество, получение, полемика, вклад, приоритет, активно, также.

VI. Translate paragraph 3 into Russian.

VII. Read paragraph 4 and say what the decisive transformation of industrial production and its new forms resulted in.

VIII. Write out of the text the words and phrases describing the history of television.

IX. Make an outline of the article.

X.Speak about the history of television.

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