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A tumour of the brain and spinal cord, composed of neuroglia (glia глия, нейроглия, нервная ткань) cells and fibres.
Exercise 11. Put questions to the underlined words:
1. The chances of surviving the disease vary greatly by the type and location of the cancer and the extent of disease at the start of treatment.
2. While cancer can affect people of all ages, and a few types of cancer are more common in children, the risk of developing cancer generally increases with age.
3. In 2007, cancer caused about 13% of all human deaths worldwide (7.9 million).
4. Chemotherapy in addition to surgery has proven useful in a number of different cancer types including: breast cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, osteogenic sarcoma, testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, and certain lung cancers.
5. The physician John Hill described tobacco snuff нюхальний тютюн as the cause of nose cancer in 1761.
6. After a diagnosis is made, doctors find out how far the cancer has spread and determine the stage of the cancer.
7. With the widespread use of the microscope in the 18th century, it was discovered that the 'cancer poison' spread from the primary tumor through the lymph nodes to other sites ("metastasis").
8. Skin cancer will be able to be prevented by staying in the shade, protecting yourself with a hat and shirt when in the sun, and using sunscreen.
Exercise 12. Complete the case history with the prepositions from the box below. Translate into Ukrainian.
Following 3 weeks… unexplained morning headaches, M.K., a 42-year old man, went …his local doctor. He had no vomiting or nausea, no seizures, simply headaches. His local doctor found M.K. to have a normal neurological exam, but ordered a plain CT head scan. This showed a 4 cm diameter lesion or mass located … the right hemisphere, … the frontal lobe, and there appeared to be mild swelling or “shift” associated with it. To better define the lesion, M.K.’s doctor ordered a brain MRI, with and without contrast. This study showed the lesion in better detail. The lesion only very faintly took up the contrast agent, was round overall with some irregular margins, and appeared to be a solid mass. The radiologist suspected this was a primary brain tumor, most likely a glioma (глиома- опухоль центральной нервной системы, происходящая из клеток нейроглии) such as an astrocytoma астроцитома (глиальная опухоль). M.K. was given a prescription … oral steroid to assist in reducing the brain swelling, and expeditiously referred … a neurosurgeon.
Exercise 13. Open the brackets and translate the case history into Ukrainian.
At the age of 16, Kelly Lee (to involve) in a motor vehicle accident. She not (to wear) a seatbelt and (to eject) from the overturned vehicle. Fortunately, ground and air paramedics (to get) to her soon after the accident. She (to be) unconscious at the scene but breathing, had obvious head and limb injuries, and was intubated for her helicopter flight back to the hospital. The ER (Emergency Room) was alerted about her condition en route, and the full Trauma Team (to mobilize) for her arrival. A general surgeon, ER specialist, orthopedic surgeon, and neurosurgeon rapidly (to assess) her top to toe upon her arrival, and the usual blood tests and imaging studies rapidly (to carry) out. Despite having sustained several rib fractures, a broken arm and leg, moderate lung injuries and a small laceration of her liver, her spine CT (increased intracranial pressure) (to show) no fracture or dislocation. Her head CT (to show) a small blood clot on the surface of her brain, a few areas of brain tissue bruising, a nondisplaced skull fracture, some brain swelling, but no major life-threatening brain injury. She (to take) to the trauma ICU (intensive care unit- отделение интенсивной терапии), however, the surgeons elected to place an* EVD ( external ventricular drain) in the right side of K.L.’s brain to allow her ICP to be monitored and treated as needed. This was because her neurological exam was unreliable owing to the sedatives and muscle relaxants she had on board, and also because the orthopedic surgeons would need to take K.L. to the OR (operating room) операционная for her fractures. Having an EVD in place would (to provide) some degree of monitoring for K.L.’s brain throughout the orthopedic procedure. Emergency consent for the EVD placement (to obtain) by two of the neurosurgeons in the absence of any relatives or other contacts.
*An external ventricular drain (EVD), also known as an extraventricular drain or ventriculostomy, is a device used in neurosurgery that relieves raised intracranial pressure and hydrocephalus when the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid around the brain is obstructed.
Exercise 12. Translate the following word combinations into English:
З медичної точки зору; лімфатична система та кровоток; поведінка; профілактика раку; загальний скринінг; перш за все; зменшувати шанси; виявити злоякісну пухлину; мазок Папаниколау; кидати курити; зменшувати ризик; тісно звязаний з поведінкою; ймовірність захворювання на рак; гістологічне дослідження; зразок тканини; медичне зображення; відсутність фізичної активності; вражати; забруднювачі навколишнього середовища; генетичні помилки (дефект, вада) в клітинах; небезпечний для життя; нерегульований ріст клітин; вражати (про хворобу); самостійне обстеження грудей; ожиріння; доброякісна неоплазма; залозиста тканина.
Exercise 13. Translate into English:
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