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TABLE I ModernTypes of Construction

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  1. A. Read the short extract from the interview and recognize any constructions expressing Future Actions.
  2. B. Below is а list of words derived from the same stem. Indicate the parts of speech. Choose а suitable word for each blank in the sentences below.
  3. B. Will you mark out the peculiarities of American and Japanese work management and fill in the following table (copy this table into your copybook).
  4. Building construction
  5. C) Make a round table discussion of the American holidays.
  6. Change the stressed sentences into the suitable phrases of ex. 1.4 and make your own dialogues
  7. Divide text 12A into logical parts and give each a suitable title.
  8. E. Supply the suitable form of past tenses.
  9. Exercise 1. Make up sentences using the table. Pay attention to the place of the adverb and adverbial modifiers of the time in the sentence.
  10. Exercise 1. Practice the following table. Translate each sentence into Russian or Ukrainian
civil construction panel с. stage с. industrial с. precast concrete с. turn-key с. military с.

гражданское строительство панельное с. поэтажное с. промышленное с. сборное (из бетона) «под ключ» военное с.

45. Translate the terminological combinations of Table I a) from English into Russian; b) from Russian into English.


Control Yourself

I iiniiol Yourself. Review of Units 1-3 33



Can you choose the correct variant without consulting the articles "Why Do Feopk Build?", "Excavation", "Foundation"? In case you fail to do it, we recommend you tc repeat the corresponding material.

1. Much what we do takes place /

a) indoors

b) outdoors

2. We need more light j

a) by day 1 than is рт0У^е^ ьу natUre.

b) by night /

3. Every construction serves as accommodation

a) for people and enterprises

b) for people, families, organizations and enterprises

4. Sporting facilities include

a) stadiums and swimming pools

b) stadiums, aquaparks, swimming pools, sporting complexes

5. The superstructure of a building is

a) its above-ground part

b) its below-ground part

6. The substructure of a building is

a) its below-ground part

b) its above-ground part

7. The foundation of a structure transmits its loads

a) into the lower strata of earth

b) into the upper stratum of earth


8. a) Organic structure of soil "i must be removed from the build-b) Inorganic structure of soil / ing areas.

9. The upper stratum of earth is removed in order to guard the foundation


a) from rain and sun

b) from water and wind erosion

10. In the cold climatic zones foundations should be placed

a) below the level of freezing

b) above the level of freezing

11. Foundations should not be placed

a) on organic soils

b) on inorganic soils

!, foundations keep the walls and the floors a) from indirect contact with the soil 11) from direct contact with the soil

inking may cause a) cracks in the walls I b) cracks in the roofs and the floors M. I oundation design is

a) of little importance \ for constructions.

b) of primary importance )

IS. For large (small) buildings foundation design is

a) rather simple

b) rather complex

I <> Water, electricity, ventilation, and dispose of waste systems

a) form live loads

b) form dead loads

17. Live loads include the weights of

a) the people, the furnishings and equipment

b) water, electricity and ventilation systems |8. Shallow and deep foundations


a) differ in their cost

b) have the same cost

19. Shallow foundations are generally

a) more expensive "> ,

b) less expensive / than deep ones.

20. Civil construction includes

a) industrial and precast concrete types of construction

b) industrial and military types of construction

Try to answer the following questions.

1. Why do people build?

2. What are the three main parts of a building?

3. What accommodation and services do modern people need?

4. What sporting facilities are being constructed nowadays?

5. What are the two main types of loads?

6. What components does dead (live) load include?

7. What branches of civil engineering do you know?

3 - 6049

Unit Four

ill Four. Construction Materials




Master the key terms and head words.

advantage [ad'va:ntid3] — преиму- purpose — цель

щество resistance — сопротивление

artificial — искусственный, фик- strength — прочность, сила

тивный timber — строевой лес, бревна,
brick — кирпич лесной материал

concrete — бетон wood — древесина, роща

gravel — гравий woodwork — плотницкая работа,
durable — прочный, долговре- деревянные изделия

менный to decay - гнить, затухать

property — свойство to vary — варьировать, меняться

46. Which of the given words are nouns? adjectives? Why?

mixer, various, advantageous, gravel, purpose, art, artificial, stone, resis­tant, resistance, durability, durable, disadvantage, property

47. Which of the materials listed below are natural, artificial?
metal, stone, brick, concrete, gravel, wood, sand, timber, iron

48. Which of the properties of construction materials may be classified as advanta­
geous? disadvantageous?

high cost fire-resistance non-fire-resistance

low resistance low cost high strength

high weight durability corrosion-resistance

heavy weight hardness softness

49. Combine the attributes (a) and the nouns (b). Do it in writing.

(a) artificial, durable, various, useful, low, advantageous, high

(b) process, materials, properties, strength, industry, resistance, cost

50. Which of the words given below are nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs? Translate
every word.

height, high, deepen, depth, deeply, strength, strengthen, strong, long, highly, lengthen, length, hard, hardly, harden, hardness

51. Read the word combinations. Translate them from Russian.

foundation depth — глубина залегания фундамента

nilms properties — различные свойства

s of decay - процесс гниения, затухания
lal atmosphere — искусственный воздух
■vel concrete — гравийный бетон
jniher frame - деревянный каркас
Hvcl sand — гравийный песок
Ltd and translate the article. % py^n . ^*ien

Materials used for construction purposes possess different proper-h. They differ in durability, strength, weight, fire- and decay-resistance

IiikI naturally, cost. уьъУГ'Ч!

Wbod, timoer, brick, stone, concrete, metals, and plastics belong to the post popular building materials used nowadays. They all have their advantag-Ь and disadvantages that are taken into account when designing a structure. Wbod belongs to naturally growing materials. It is known to be the Oldest construction material and is still widely used for different purposes, wood is popular since it has low weight and is easy to work. Besides, it s naturally and is cheap. But its usage is limited because of its disad-fcntages: it easily burns and decays. As to stone, it also belongs to the old-m\ building materials. Among its advantages there are strength, high heat ilation and fire-resistance. Brick belongs to artificial construction materials. It has been used in v countries and in different climates. In modern times bricks vary wide-fly with the method of production and temperature of burning.

Concrete is known to be one of the most popular building materials. | It is produced by mixing cement, gravel, water, and sand in the proper amounts.

ler the words,
alloy - сплав ferrous — соединения закиси железа

Ettad and translate the extract in writing.

Metals belong to hard and fire-resistant building materials. There exist two main groups of metals: ferrous and non-ferrous. Non-ferrous are [metals whose main component is not iron. As to iron, steel and their al­loys, they belong to the group of ferrous metals. 52. Pair work. Put these questions to your groupmate.

1. Into what groups can construction materials be divided?

2. What are the advantages (disadvantages) of wood, stone, metals?

3. What two groups are metals divided into?

4. What is the difference between ferrous and non-ferrous metals?


Unit Five




Master the key terms and head words.

wood - древесина, строевой ле- 'decrease - уменьшение, спад

соматериал; роща to in'crease — возрастать

content — содержание, доля Increase — рост, увеличение

evaporation - испарение the only - единственный

to contain - содержать в себе the ...ег... the ...er - чем..., тем...
to decrease — уменьшать(ся)

Define parts of speech. Translate the words.

new, renew, renewable, resource, evaporate, 'increase, in'crease, only, the only, 'decrease, de'crease, container

53. Translate the words into Russian (a); translate the combinations (b).

(a) evaporable, controllable, collectible, workable, workability, usable, reusable, reusability, suppliable

(b) water evaporation increase water content increase (decrease) naturally growing resource

the only naturally renewable resource

the only highly used naturally growing material

54. Read the terminological combinations; translate them from Russian,
wood industry — лесная промышленность

wood covering — деревянное перекрытие wood fiber - древесное волокно evaporation test — проба на испаряемость

55. Translate the following sentences. Mind the Complex Subject.

1. Water content is known to decrease in the cut wood.

2. Wood as a structural material is considered to be highly used because of its low weight, low cost, and high workability.

i live. Wood______________________________________ 37

I Use of concrete for building purposes is announced to be constantly

Increasing all over the world. I, The strength and hardness of cut wood are known to increase as its

water content evaporates.

the article.

Waod has been a highly used building material since prehistoric times. ^Bng other highly used construction materials there are concrete, steel, ^■t, stone, and plastics. They all differ in their properties and in the ■thods of usage. Construction materials are known to differ in strength, Bdncss, fire- and corrosion-resistance durability, and, naturally, cost. Being the oldest building material, wood is also known to be the only Rurally growing organic material. Is wood strong? Hardly so, because $d always contains some water which decreases its strength. But after wood is cut, the water content starts to evaporate and as the water ntent decreases the strength of the cut wood and its hardness start to crease. It is a well-known fact that the drier is the cut wood the greater is L strength and hardness.

Trees are known to grow naturally, which makes wood a constantly ible natural resource. Among other advantages of wood there are its few cost, low weight, and high workability. But, as any other construction ■eterial, wood has its disadvantages. The main ones are the following - it I» not fire-resistant, it easily burns. Besides, it easily decays.

Part 2

| Master the key terms and head words.

to glue — клеить to install — устанавливать, мон­тировать to laminate — расщеплять, лами­нировать to require — требовать

board — доска

to board - обивать досками plywood - фанера ■trip - полоса, лента veneer — облицовка veneered — облицованный to determine [di't3:min] — опреде лять, устанавливать

56. Put down the corresponding verbs. Translate the words.

Model: predetermination - to predetermine - заранее определять

(a) requirement —to_______________ —____________

installation — to —

Essential Cou

I live. Wood


lamination — to determination — to evaporation - to

(b) glue — клей — to glue — клеить

change —__________ — to

form - to

strip -__________ _t0_________________

decrease —_________ ^_ — to —

veneer —__________ — to ~~ — ~

board - -to~ —v"

57. a) Read the terminological combinations, translate them from Russian, glued board — доска, склеенная из фанеры glued wood - склеенное дерево, фанера laminated glass — слоистое стекло veneering plywood - оклеичная фанера

b) Give the English equivalents of the Russian words.

1. Small (полосы)_________ of wood are (склеены)___


2. Wood in panel form is more (предпочтителен)_________ fol

some construction (цели)________ than (доски)_________

3. (фанерные)________________ panels are made up of (тонкие^

_______________ (деревянные)_______________ veneers.

58. Translate the following combinations into Russian,
wood veneers laminated wood

strip of land strips of wood glued together

Read and translate the article.


Wood used for construction purposes is usually changed into lami­nated wood or wood panel products. Large structural wooden members are produced by glueing small strips of wood together.

Wood in panel form is more advantageous for many building purpos­es than boards. Why is it so? First of all, because wood panels are much easier to install than boards. They require much less labour for the process of installation. Besides, swelling (набухание) and splitting (расщепле­ние) in panels are greatly decreased compared with boardsAAs to plywood panels, they are made up of thin wooden veneers glued together. It is of great importance to note that when wooden structures are designed the future stresses of their structural members must be predetermined.

I» < mi you answer these questions?

i »< >es wood as a structural material have only advantages? If not, what

nrc its disadvantages? |, Is wood a strong building material? If not, why? L Docs the water content in the cut wood increase or decrease?

hat forms is wood changed into? And for what purposes? Compare

wood in panel forms with boards. What do they differ in? | What elements are plywood panels made up of?


TABLE II Kinds of Wood


древесина wood, timber
березовая д. birch wood
дубовая д. oakw.
клееная д. glued w.
пропитанная д. impregnated w.
слоистая д. laminated w.
д. мягких пород softwood
д. твердых пород hardwood

60. translate the given combinations a) from English into Russian; b) from Russian into English.


aster the key terms and head words.

roofing — покрытие крыши to roof—настилать крышу surface - поверхность to belongto — принадлежать (к)

Поог — пол, этаж flooring— настилка полов frame- рама, корпус removal- устранение, переме­щение roof- крыша, кровля

61. State parts of speech. Translate every word.

hardwoods, surface, polluter, remove, pollution, removal, belong, roof, belongings, resist, renew


Essential Coure

62. Form the nouns. Translate the words.
Model: resistable — resistability - способность к сопротивлению

workable —___________________ —___________________

removable —___________________ —___________________

renewable -___________________ -____________________

usable -_________________ -____________________

63. Read the examples. Translate them into English.

surface area — площадь поверхности *

floor boards — настил

floor timber — половая балка

roof iron — кровельное железо

roof ventilation - потолочный вентилятор

roofer — кровельщик

64. Choose and put down the English equivalents to the Russian word combinations
given below.

Model: загрязненный воздух - polluted air surface waters, floor frame, roofer, chemical pollution, decorative pur­poses, surface cracks, strips of land, chemically polluted air, floor boards, roof iron, laminated panel

слоистая панель —____________________________________

кровельщик —________________________________________

поверхностные трещины —_____________________________

полоски земли —______________________________________

химически загрязненный воздух —___________________________

декоративные цели -___________________________________

химическое загрязнение —______________________________

шпангоут —___________________________________________

поверхностные воды —_________________________________

настил -_____________________________________________

кровельное железо —_____________________________________

65. Give the Russian for the following terminological combinations.

constantly polluted atmosphere chemically produced corrosion

naturally renewable resources commonly used types of wood

constantly increasing global pollution

66. Translate the following questions.

1. What structural materials does timber belong to?

2. What is it produced from?

3. What are the main advantages (disadvantages) of timber?


| live. Wood

Why is removal of water from timber useful for construction purposes? What are the two main types of timber? What are softwoods (hardwoods) used for? How much of the world's land surface is considered to be covered

with forests?

What countries are rich (poor) in forests?

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